Cases reported "Hernia, Diaphragmatic"

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11/781. Ruptured hemidiaphragm after bilateral lung transplantation.

    A case of right hemidiaphragm rupture and abdominal herniation into the thorax occurring during the immediate post-operative course of double-lung transplantation is reported. This complication has not been reported previously. We examine the possible aetiology and suggest that the direct cause could be an increase in intra-abdominal pressure during chest physiotherapy. ( info)

12/781. phenobarbital dosing and pharmacokinetics in a neonate receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the dosing and pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in a neonate receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). CASE SUMMARY: The treatment of a 2.6 kg, 38-week gestational age boy with congenital diaphragmatic hernia who developed seizures while receiving ECMO support is described. A loading dose of 20 mg/kg resulted in concentrations of 16.4 and 12.9 micrograms/mL at 3 and 24 hours, respectively. A maintenance dose of 5 mg/kg/d provided a peak concentration of 19.7 micrograms/mL and trough concentration of 16.7 micrograms/mL after four doses. The calculated volume of distribution was 1.2 L/kg and the estimated elimination half-life was 92 hours. serum concentrations decreased after circuit changes unless the new circuit was redosed. DISCUSSION: The reported incidence of seizures in neonates while receiving ECMO support is 18%. Despite this frequency, there are no clinical reports describing anticonvulsant use in this population. This case demonstrates the use of standard phenobarbital doses to achieve low, but therapeutic, serum concentrations. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a volume of distribution slightly larger than expected in neonates and an elimination half-life similar to published values. Altering circulating blood volumes resulted in significant reductions in serum concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Neonates on ECMO may have a larger volume of distribution than neonates not receiving ECMO and may require larger phenobarbital doses to achieve desired serum concentrations. This may result from the presence of large exogenous blood volumes for priming, as well as loss of drug during circuit changes, extraction by the circuit, or hemofiltration. Further work is needed to better define the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phenobarbital in the neonatal ECMO population. ( info)

13/781. Excision of spinal tumor in a patient with severe pulmonary dysfunction using combined spinal and epidural anesthesia with two epidural catheters.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA) has become common practice. We performed CSEA using two epidural catheters in a 69-year-old female with severe pulmonary dysfunction caused by a diaphragmatic hernia, who underwent surgical excision of a lumbar spinal tumor. methods: Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia was performed using two epidural catheters to minimize postoperative pulmonary complications. One epidural catheter was inserted above the surgical region, at the T11-12 interspace, and another one below the surgical region, via the sacral hiatus. Spinal anesthesia was produced using the L5-S1 interspace and 3 mL 0.5% bupivacaine. Oxygen, 3 L/min, was administered through a face mask during surgery. RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after spinal anesthesia, analgesic level was confirmed below T7 using the pinprick method. The patient complained of pain in the surgical region 10 minutes after the dura mater was opened. We injected 5 mL 2% mepivacaine through the upper epidural catheter to relieve the pain. We also injected 10 mL 2% mepivacaine through the lower catheter when she felt pain in the right leg. The perioperative course was uneventful. Oxygen saturation was maintained above 95%. CONCLUSIONS: Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia using two epidural catheters was used successfully to excise a spinal tumor in a patient with severe pulmonary dysfunction. ( info)

14/781. Diagnosis and hazards of unexpected diaphragmatic hernias during colonoscopy: report of two cases.

    Two cases of diaphragmatic hernias are reported. Both cases were previously undiagnosed and were found during diagnostic colonoscopy. In one case sudden respiratory distress occurred during the endoscopic procedure owing to a barotraumatic perforation in a left-sided hernia with tension pneumothorax. The diagnoses were made by fluoroscopy without delay. Endoscopists should be aware of the possible occurrence of diaphragmatic hernias and their risk as life-threatening complications. To avoid such dangerous complications access to X-ray facilities with fluoroscopy is recommended in endoscopic units where colonoscopies are performed. ( info)

15/781. intubation of newborn during delivery with intact umbilical cord--a case report.

    A 24-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman at 38th week gestation was scheduled for elective cesarean section (C/S) because of a previous C/S and prenatal diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. We decided to intubate the newborn during delivery before the umbilical cord was cut. After delivery of the fetal head and part of the shoulders, the mouth of the fetus was cleared and the trachea was intubated orally with a 2.5 mm internal diameter (I.D.) endotracheal tube under sterile conditions while the uteroplacental circulation was still intact. The patient had to be repeatedly resuscitated due to bradycardia in intensive care unit. No surgical correction of the hernia was attempted because of the poor condition of the baby, which died 3.5 hours after birth. Although our case ended up in mortality despite successful perinatal intubation, we recommend that in case where airway or ventilatory problems are anticipated, tracheal intubation is done during delivery before the umbilical cord is clamped. When the fetus is sharing the maternal circulation, it will allow physicians to have more time and safety to perform corrective measures. ( info)

16/781. Diaphragmatic hernia seen as a late complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Laparoscopic surgery has emerged as the standard of care for the elective operative management of symptomatic gallbladder disease. The surgical literature is now beginning to accumulate sufficient case numbers that more clearly define the associated morbidity of this type of surgery. This article reports an instance of iatrogenic injury to the right muscular hemidiaphragm and subsequent hernia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ( info)

17/781. Pulmonary agenesis, microphthalmia, and diaphragmatic defect (PMD): new syndrome or association?

    We present the prenatal diagnosis of a 22-week-gestation fetus with unilateral pulmonary agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia, microphthalmia, pulmonary vessel agenesis, and intrauterine growth retardation. The "association" of pulmonary agenesis, diaphragmatic defect, and microphthalmia was described previously in two patients but the resemblance was not noted by the authors. While each case differs slightly in some of the associated anomalies, it is evident that the mainstay of diagnosis is similar to the case presented here and that this represents a new syndrome or association. ( info)

18/781. Delayed diaphragmatic herniation masquerading as a complicated parapneumonic effusion.

    Injury to the diaphragm following blunt or penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma is not uncommon. Recognition of this important complication of trauma continues to be a challenge because of the lack of specific clinical and plain radiographic features, the frequent presence of other serious injuries and the potential for delayed presentation. Delayed diaphragmatic herniation often presents with catastrophic bowel obstruction or strangulation. Early recognition of diaphragmatic injury is required to avoid this potentially lethal complication. The case of a 35-year-old man with a history of a knife wound to the left flank 15 years previously, who presented with unexplained acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and a unilateral exudative pleural effusion that was refractory to tube thoracostomy drainage, is reported. After admission to hospital, he developed gross dilation of his colon; emergency laparotomy revealed an incarcerated colonic herniation into the left hemithorax. Interesting clinical features of this patient's case included the patient's hobby of weightlifting, a persistently deviated mediastinum despite drainage of the pleural effusion and deceptive pleural fluid biochemical indices. ( info)

19/781. Intrathoracic application of the reverse latissimus dorsi muscle flap.

    The use of the reverse latissimus dorsi muscle flap based on its paraspinous perforators for posterior trunk wound coverage has been described previously. However, few studies have reported its intrathoracic application. In this study the authors present their experience in treating 3 patients with various intrathoracic defects using the reverse latissimus dorsi muscle flap. There were 1 male and 2 female patients who ranged in age from 4 to 74 years (mean, 49 years). The etiology included an infected aortic graft, a bronchopleural fistula, and a recurrent congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 24 months. Successful outcomes were achieved in all 3 patients, and there was no recurrence or wound complication identified. Their results demonstrate the versatility and reliability of the reverse latissimus dorsi muscle flap in treating low posterior intrathoracic defects. ( info)

20/781. A clinical and molecular study of a patient with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is one of the overgrowth syndromes. Microdeletions of the glypican-3 (GPC3) gene were described by Pilia et al. (1996). Glypican-3 encodes a putative extracellular proteoglycan which is expressed in embryonic mesodermal tissues and plays an important role in embryonal growth. We report a Japanese patient with SGBS who had a single base deletion in the exon 7 of the GPC3 gene. This is the first report of a single base deletion of the GPC3 gene. ( info)
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