Cases reported "Herpes Simplex"

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1/819. adult-onset MELAS presenting as herpes encephalitis.

    OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual presentation of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) manifested in late life with a clinical picture of herpes simplex encephalitis. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Clinical neurology department in a tertiary care hospital. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 55-year-old woman developed aphasia and delirium during ophthalmic herpes zoster infection treated with oral prednisone and ophthalmic steroids, which was followed by progressive cognitive decline without acute neurologic events for 5 years. At age 60, the patient presented with new onset of seizures, hemiparesis, and hemianopsia. Subsequently she developed cortical blindness, multiple traumatic soft tissue injuries from falls, acute psychosis, and severe dementia with periods of agitation. She died in a nursing home in March 1997, 6 years after initial presentation. RESULTS: magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain showed hyperintensity on T2-weighted images involving temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes bilaterally as well as mild atrophy of brainstem and cerebellum. Single photon emission computed tomographic imaging showed hypoperfusion of temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Results of video electroencephalographic monitoring showed periodic lateralizing epileptiform discharges in temporal and occipital areas. The serum lactate level was normal in May 1996 and elevated in October 1996. The creatine kinase level was elevated with a 100% MM fraction in August 1991 and normal in March 1996. Results of repeated cerebrospinal fluid analyses indicated elevated protein levels. Analysis of dna was diagnostic of MELAS by mitochondrial dna point mutation at position 3243. The results of autopsy showed moderate cerebral, cerebellar, and brainstem atrophy with signs of infarction in temporal and parietal lobes bilaterally. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation as well as age at onset of MELAS are highly variable. Onset of mitochondrial disorders can be provoked by febrile illness when there is mismatch between energy requirements and availability. In the differential diagnosis of herpes encephalitides, melas syndrome should be considered.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis, ill
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2/819. Vascular changes in tuberculous meningoencephalitis.

    Our report refers two cases of tuberculous encephalomeningitis which differ in the course and pathological changes. In case 1 blood vessels showed features of peri, endo-, or panvasculites. In some vessels endothelium proliferation leading to the stenosis or obliteration of the vascular lumen was observed. necrosis was an effect of vessels occlusion. In case 2 many fewer vessel were involved in onflammation process. Vascular changes were also less extensive and were observed more rarely. Tuberculous infection often caused less tissue lesions than vascular changes. Different pathological changes probably depend on the type and virulence of Myobacterium tuberculosis and on the host immune response to the infection.
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ranking = 0.79999525342153
keywords = encephalitis
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3/819. Atypical herpes simplex encephalitis presenting as operculum syndrome.

    This case report demonstrates the course of herpes simplex virus cerebritis in a patient aged 7 years 2 months who presented with non-specific symptoms followed by an epileptic attack. Subcortical, bilateral opercular and bilateral thalamic lesions were detected, but the temporal and inferior frontal lobes were spared. The patient developed anarthria, impairment of mastication and swallowing consistent with operculum syndrome. diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and elevation of oligoclonal antibodies specific to herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid after an unexpectedly negative polymerase chain reaction test.
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ranking = 2.7733927029815
keywords = virus, encephalitis
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4/819. Diaschisis in chronic viral encephalitis with Koshevnikov syndrome.

    The authors report a 61-year-old man with chronic viral encephalitis and Koshevnikov syndrome occurring 42 months after initial symptom of right hemiparesis. Serial computed tomography of the brain showed changes in the attenuation of the left temporal lobe lesion over time. Magnetic resonance images of the brain showed enlargement of left temporoparietooccipital lobes with cortical gyral enhancement on T1-weighted images following intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA. 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission computerized tomography showed increased radioactivity and hyperperfusion in the left temporoparietal region with paradoxically decreased local tissue perfusion at the contralateral right hemisphere. Follow-up magnetic resonance images of the brain 4 years later showed atrophy of bilateral cerebral hemispheres. We postulate that a "transcallosal diaschisis" with subsequent degeneration is a possible mechanism. A brain biopsy from the left temporal lobe lesion showed pictures compatible with viral encephalitis probably herpes simplex encephalitis.
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ranking = 1.3999916934877
keywords = encephalitis
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5/819. Fas-independent cytotoxicity mediated by human CD4 CTL directed against herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the mechanisms of cytotoxicity mediated by virus-specific human CD4 CTLs using the lymphocytes of family members with a Fas gene mutation. CD4 CTL bulk lines and clones directed against HSV-infected cells were established from lymphocytes of a patient with a homozygous Fas gene mutation and of the patient's mother. HSV-specific CD4 CTLs generated from lymphocytes of the patient and her mother exerted cytotoxicity against HSV-infected cells from the patient (Fas-/-) and from her mother (Fas /-) to almost the same degree in an HLA class II-restricted manner. mRNAs for the major mediators of CTL cytotoxicity, Fas ligand, perforin, and granzyme B, were detected in these CD4 CTLs using the RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity of the HSV-specific CD4 CTLs appeared to be Ca2 -dependent and was almost completely inhibited by concanamycin A, a potent inhibitor of the perforin-based cytotoxic pathway. Although the Fas/Fas ligand system has been reported to be the most important mechanism for CD4 CTL-mediated cytotoxicity in the murine system, the present findings strongly suggest that granule exocytosis, not the Fas/Fas ligand system, is the main pathway for the cytotoxicity mediated by HSV-specific human CD4 CTLs.
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ranking = 4.9334936238999
keywords = virus
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6/819. Operative treatment of tentorial herniation in herpes encephalitis.

    herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of acute viral encephalitis in children. Due to the variety of possible clinical manifestations the diagnosis is often overlooked in the early stages of the disease. Anti-viral therapy with acyclovir should be started whenever HSE is suspected. When there is further deterioration under virostatic therapy, a brain biopsy should be performed to verify the diagnosis. But even when the adequate medical therapy is established, massive brain edema and brain shift resulting in tentorial herniation can develop. Up to now the reported mortality of these patients is still around 30%. Here we report on a child with severe necrotizing herpes simplex encephalitis who developed severe tentorial herniation due to a right-sided mass lesion. The patient's status markedly improved after decompressive anterior temporal lobe resection. To our knowledge a similar case has not yet been reported in the literature. We suggest that anterior temporal lobe resection and decompressive craniotomy is of benefit in selected cases with tentorial herniation because both decompression and reduction of infectious material can be achieved.
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ranking = 2.1866975381354
keywords = virus, encephalitis, ill
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7/819. Chronic herpes simplex virus type I glossitis in an immunocompromised man.

    herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the tongue commonly accompanies acute primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. However, recurrent infection of the tongue is exceptional and is restricted to immunocompromised individuals. A 57-year-old man with corticosteroid-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sciatica presented with a chronic median glossitis due to HSV-1. The main clinical and histological feature was massive necrosis of the entire mucosa. immunohistochemistry demonstrated a considerable amount of HSV gB, gC and gD envelope glycoproteins dispersed in the chorion. In contrast, HSV-1 dna was detected only in a limited number of epithelial cells using in situ hybridization. The extent of necrosis and the pattern of viral dna and envelope protein distribution represent unique features of median herpetic glossitis, which are not found in more common types of HSV infection.
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ranking = 4.9334936238999
keywords = virus
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8/819. Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical verification of diagnosis in two archival cases recognized as encephalitis necroticans acuta (ENA) on routine examinations.

    Two archival cases diagnosed 20 years ago on routine neuropathological methods as Encephalitis Necroticans Acuta (ENA) were investigated in EM and by immunohistochemical methods. The previous diagnosis was confirmed only in one case because herpes simplex virus was found. In the second case the intracellular inclusions visible in ME corresponded to measles virus thus previous diagnosis was changed to SSPE.
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ranking = 1.7866939782015
keywords = virus, encephalitis
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9/819. Fatal herpetic hepatitis in adult following short corticotherapy: a case report.

    herpes simplex virus hepatitis (HSV hepatitis) is an uncommon and severe complication of HSV type 1 and HSV type 2 infection. HSV hepatitis affects mostly immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a young man without any previous known immunodeficiency who developed fatal HSV hepatitis in the first 8 days of oral corticotherapy given for ulcerative colitis. A prompt diagnosis was possible because HSV was recovered from peripheral blood leukocytes.
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ranking = 0.98669872477998
keywords = virus
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10/819. Sequential peripartum herpes simplex virus type 2 disease in parents and their newborn mimicking intrafamily spread of common viruses.

    herpes simplex type 2 (HSV2) disease developed sequentially among two parents and their newborn. The father first became ill with upper-respiratory symptoms and fever. Then, 5 days later, shortly after delivery, the mother had fever, pharyngitis, and diarrhea. Subsequently, the infant developed undifferentiated febrile illness at the age of 3 days. HSV etiology was recognized by incidental isolation of HSV2 from the newborn naospharynx. The father never developed genital lesions and the mother's symptoms remained nonspecific for several days prior to the onset of genital manifestations. The sequential emergence and manifestations of these infections could have been misconstrued for an intrafamily spread of respiratory or enteric viruses. This cluster illustrates that HSV2 may cause sequential symptomatic disease in susceptible individuals mimicking other viruses.
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ranking = 9.8675023008889
keywords = virus, fever, ill
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