Cases reported "Herpes Zoster"

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1/291. Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome as an early manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome is a recently recognized variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, developing in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other conditions causing immune compromise. We report a case in which the diagnosis of retinal necrosis syndrome was made before the diagnosis of AIDS was confirmed. A 41-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of blurred vision in his left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed extensive retinal necrosis with total retinal detachment in his left eye and multifocal deep retinal lesions scattered in the posterior fundus as well as in the peripheral retina in his right eye. The serologic test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was positive. Despite intravenous acyclovir treatment for 1 week, the lesions in the right eye showed rapid progression. High doses of intravitreal ganciclovir were then given in addition to intravenous acyclovir. After combined treatment for 1 month, the lesions became quiescent and the visual acuity improved to 20/30. Although the patient soon developed full-blown AIDS, the vision in his right eye remained undisturbed. physicians should suspect progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome in any patient with rapidly progressive necrotizing retinopathy and test the patient for HIV infection. Aggressive combined antiviral agent therapy should be considered to save vision.
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2/291. herpes zoster. Case report of possible accidental inoculation.

    A 30-year-old healthy male physician developed grouped, papulovesicular lesions along the dermatomes of T1 and T2 of the left side of his body. The onset occurred two days after he accidentally pricked his right index finger with a needle that had been used to aspirate the acute papulovesicular lesion of a patient with severe herpes zoster. The clinical appearance and dermatomal distribution, the subsequent clinical course, the skin biopsy findings, and the substantial increase in complement-fixing antibody titer to the varicella-zoster (V-Z) virus in the convalescent serum samples are strong evidence for herpes zoster. Although it is generally believed that person-to-person transmission of zoster is rare and that herpes zoster results from the reactivation of a latent varicella virus, the present case suggests that zoster can be acquired from exogenous infection with a V-Z virus, at least in certain circumstances.
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3/291. Cutaneous infections by papillomavirus, herpes zoster and candida albicans as the only manifestation of idiopathic CD4 T lymphocytopenia.

    BACKGROUND: Selective depletion of CD4 T lymphocytes is common in both primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. Idiopathic CD4 T lymphocytopenia (ICL) cases are defined as a persistent CD4 T lymphocyte count of less than 300x10(6) cells/L and/or less than 20% of the total T-cell count. METHOD: A 40-year-old woman, with a history of psoriasis and paracetamol allergy, presented with persistent warts of the hands and condylomas of the ano-genitalia. Histological and virological analysis was carried out on genital and cutaneous lesions and peripheral blood. RESULTS: serology for hiv-1, hiv-2, Epstein-Barr virus and parvovirus B19 were negative. There was lymphopenia of 10% CD4 cells, with normal numbers of total leukocytes; there were no other-abnormal immunological findings. dna analysis of cutaneous lesions revealed HPV-49 and HPV-3 in the hands and HPV-6 in the genital region. CONCLUSIONS: The cause of the ICL in this patient is unknown. HPV is not known to be an immunosuppressive agent; it remains to be determined whether the HPV-associated lesions are the cause or the result of immunosuppression.
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4/291. herpes zoster in a 7-month-old infant: a case report and review.

    herpes zoster (HZ) is a cutaneous viral infection of the skin that presents in a dermatomal distribution. It represents reactivation of herpes varicella zoster virus that has continued to exist in a latent form in the neurons of the posterior root ganglia. Although it is rare to see HZ in children, cases have been reported after exposure to varicella zoster in utero or during the first months of life. We present a case of HZ in a healthy 7-month-old girl who had had chickenpox at age 4 months.
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5/291. Impact of cerebrospinal fluid PCR on the management of HIV-infected patients with varicella-zoster virus infection of the central nervous system.

    Over a 2 year period, we identified five HIV-infected patients who presented with central nervous system infection caused by varicella-zoster virus, three with myelitits, and two with meningoencephalitis. All five patients were profoundly immunocompromised. Clinical presentation of these patients overlapped to a significant extent with diseases caused by other viruses, e.g. CMV. Indeed, in one case, a dual infection with CMV was diagnosed, but the respective role of each virus was ascertained by in situ hybridisation. At the time of CNS involvement, only one patient had active VZV cutaneous lesions, which were instrumental in diagnosing her condition. In contrast, PCR for VZV dna in the CSF was helpful in making a diagnosis in the four other cases, one of which was confirmed by a post mortem. Of these five patients, two patients developed VZV disease while receiving oral acyclovir and had foscarnet treatment initiated when MRI demonstrated widespread lesions. They did not respond to antiviral therapy. The three other patients had intravenous acyclovir initiated at a time when no or limited parenchymal lesions were observed by MRI. Two of these three patients had VZV infection diagnosed solely on the basis of PCR: all three responded to treatment. Our data show that reactivation of VZV involving the central nervous system occurs frequently in the absence of cutaneous lesions. PCR of cerebrospinal fluid may help in making an early diagnosis which is probably a prerequisite for successful treatment of VZV infection of the CNS.
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6/291. Acute generalized varicella zoster in the setting of preexisting generalized erythema.

    We report a 5-year-old girl who initially had generalized erythema from scarlet fever. Four days later she developed sheets of monomorphous vesicles in the areas of erythema. A Tzanck smear of a vesicle base showed multinucleated giant cells, and viral culture grew varicella zoster virus, confirming a clinical diagnosis of varicella. This case illustrates that, with a background of preexisting erythema, varicella may present in an atypical manner.
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7/291. Shingles developing within recent surgical scars.

    Occurrence of varicella and recurrence of herpes simplex on traumatized sites of the skin are well-described events. By contrast, herpes zoster occurring specifically at the site of previously injured skin has not yet been reported. Two patients are presented who developed shingles limited to skin on and around recent surgical scars. Varicella zoster virus was identified using immunohistochemistry on skin biopsy specimens and Tzanck smears. We suspect that the occurrence of herpes zoster involving surgical scars is usually misdiagnosed and therefore unrecognized. Whether shingles adjacent to scars represents a coincidental event or is specifically triggered by local injury is unknown.
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8/291. Delayed facial paralysis after stapedotomy using KTP laser.

    OBJECTIVE: Delayed facial paralysis after stapes surgery is uncommon and has been reported after traditional, nonlaser techniques for stapedotomy. The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader of the potential risk of delayed facial nerve paralysis associated with the use of the potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser for stapedotomy. Etiologic mechanisms are discussed. STUDY DESIGN: The study was a descriptive study-case report. SETTING: The study was conducted at a university-based otologic practice. patients: Two patients with otosclerosis and delayed onset facial palsy 5 to 7 days after uncomplicated stapedotomy using the KTP laser were included in the study. INTERVENTION: potassium titanyl phosphate laser stapedotomy was performed. patients received treatment of facial palsy with a tapering course of oral steroids. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: House-Brackmann facial nerve grade scores were used. RESULTS: Improvement of House-Brackmann facial nerve scores from Grade VI to Grade I-II in one patient, and improvement from Grade IV to Grade I-II in the other was seen. CONCLUSION: The probable etiology of delayed facial palsy is viral neuritis from reactivation of dormant virus within the facial nerve, initiated by thermal stress of the KTP laser. Presentation and resolution of the facial palsy is similar to other types of delayed facial palsy resulting from nonlaser techniques of stapes surgery and other types of middle ear and neurotologic surgeries previously reported.
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9/291. Simultaneous treatment of cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster infections in a renal transplant recipient with ganciclovir: use of viral load to monitor response to treatment.

    Disseminated zoster occurring simultaneously with cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in a renal transplant recipient is potentially life threatening. We describe the use of intravenous ganciclovir to treat both infections. The efficacy of treatment was assessed clinically and by the measurement of CMV viral load using the hybrid capture (Murex version 2) and varicella zoster (VZV) viral load using an in-house assay. Results from this case suggest that clinical resolution in severe viral infections such as described below may be related to early control of viraemia.
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10/291. Simultaneous reactivation of herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Simultaneous reactivation of distinct herpesviridae with development of clinical manifestations is exceptional. We report a 48-year-old woman suffering from idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. As the disease remained refractory to corticosteroids, immunoglobulins and splenectomy, a cure of vinblastine was administered. An atypical stomatitis developed few days later. immunohistochemistry on a Tzanck smear and a biopsy evidenced a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The patient presented simultaneously a single necrotic lesion on the abdomen. immunohistochemistry on a skin biopsy revealed the presence of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gE, gB and IE63 proteins. Intravenous aciclovir was initiated. The present case of simultaneous clinical infections by HSV-I and VZV underlines the importance of complementary viral identification testing in the event of unusual clinical presentations.
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