Cases reported "Herpesviridae Infections"

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1/86. Human herpes-virus 8 seropositive patient with skin and graft Kaposi's sarcoma after lung transplantation.

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has been reported after solid organ transplantation mostly in recipients of renal, liver, heart, and bone allografts. We describe the first case of a patient with lung transplantation who developed KS of the skin, but also of the lung graft. The tumors were localized to places of previous trauma, implying the involvement of a Koebner phenomenon. Moreover, a polymerase chain reaction assay revealed the presence of dna sequences of herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) on tissue of the cutaneous KS. Serological tests showed HHV-8 seronegativity of the graft donor and HHV-8 seropositivity of the patient before lung transplantation suggesting that the latter was already infected before the surgery and that immunosuppression resulted in the development of KS. This case report raises the question of the prevalence of HHV-8 in candidates for transplantation and organ donors, and of the value of an antiviral prophylaxis to lower the risk of KS.
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2/86. lymphomatoid granulomatosis following autologous stem cell transplantation.

    lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angio-destructive lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) of uncertain etiology, with prominent pulmonary involvement. Recent studies indicate that LYG is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell LPD with large numbers of background reactive T lymphocytes (T cell-rich B cell lymphoma). Although the disease frequently, but not exclusively, occurs in various immunodeficiency states, it has not been reported in association with the transient immunosuppression following autologous bone marrow/peripheral stem cell transplantation (ABM/PSCT). We describe a patient who developed lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the lung approximately 2 weeks after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Although molecular studies showed no evidence of EBV genome in the biopsy material, the serologic profile with high IgM titers was suggestive of primary EBV infection. Complete radiologic remission occurred following reconstitution of the patient's immune response after a 2-week course of ganciclovir treatment. Despite the apparently low frequency of LPD (both LYG and EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoma) in the ABMT setting, we believe that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients whose clinical course following ABMT is complicated by fevers, in the absence of an identifiable infectious process.
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3/86. Human herpesvirus-6 and sudden death in infancy: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Investigation of sudden death in infancy is a vital function of the medical examiner's office. Surveillance of these cases may lead to recognition of new diseases or new manifestations of previously described diseases. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a relatively newly described virus that has been recognized as a cause of acute febrile illness in early childhood. While most cases are apparently self-limited, seven fatal cases have been reported. We present a case of a seven-month-old Latin American male with recent otitis media and vomiting who was found dead in bed. autopsy revealed interstitial pneumonitis with an atypical polymorphous lymphocytic infiltrate in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow, associated with erythrophagocytosis. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was positive for HHV-6 and negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). HHV-6 was also detected in the atypical lymphoid infiltrate by in-situ hybridization.
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4/86. Clonal change of infiltrating T-cells in children with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: possible association with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    BACKGROUND: Although familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) has been considered a T-cell disorder, to the authors' knowledge there are no previous reports on the clonal basis of FHL. In the current study the authors analyzed the clonality of T-cells in two FHL patients at the time of disease onset and at disease progression. methods: Patient 1 had FHL and died of recurrent disease 4 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). His liver and spleen showed massive infiltrations of CD3 , CD4-, and CD8 T-cells. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome was detected by in situ hybridization. Patient 2 also had FHL and died of progressive disease 9 weeks after the onset of disease despite chemotherapy. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed positive EBV genome in the peripheral blood, liver, and spleen of Patient 2. In the two patients, T-cell receptor-beta and alpha-chain variable region (TCR Vbeta and V alpha) repertoires in peripheral mononuclear cells were analyzed at the time of disease onset and at disease progression by the inverse PCR method. When a high usage (> 15%) of a specific Vbeta family member was observed, a clonal analysis was performed by PCR using beta-chain joining region (Jbeta) primers. The clonality of specific Vbeta-Jbeta fragments was confirmed by a single strand confirmation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. RESULTS: Although there was no preferential usage of Vbeta in Patient 1, the exclusive expression of Jbeta1.2 for Vbeta13 was observed. A high frequency of Vbeta13 also was observed at the time of disease progression, but the Jbeta fragment for Vbeta13 was polyclonal. In Patient 2, the restricted usage of Jbeta1.6 for Vbeta5a was observed at the time of disease onset, whereas Jbeta1.1 and 1.2 for Vbeta4 were observed exclusively at the time of disease progression. The clonality of Vbeta13-Jbeta1.2 in Patient 1 and Vbeta5a-Jbeta1.6 and Vbeta4-Jbeta1.1/Jbeta1.2 in Patient 2 was confirmed by SSCP analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the polyclonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disease associated with EBV was induced after BMT in Patient 1, and that the clonal change of expanded T-cells also was induced by EBV in Patient 2. The clonal analysis of T-cells is a useful tool to clarify the pathogenesis of FHL.
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5/86. Post transplant CD8 gammadelta T-cell lymphoma associated with human herpes virus-6 infection.

    Gammadelta T-cell lymphoma is a rare T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder that has been reported in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. This report describes a forty eight year old patient who developed gammadelta T-cell lymphoma four years after undergoing living-related kidney transplantation. The lymphoma expressed CD2, CD3, CD7, CD8 and CD56, and the gammadelta T-cell receptor and did not express CD5, CD4 and the alphabeta T-cell receptor. In addition, HHV-6 was cultured from the patient's bone marrow, marking the first time that this virus has been associated with gammadelta T-cell lymphoma. Since all patients with gammadelta T-cell lymphoma described to date have responded poorly to standard combination chemotherapies, the patient was treated with the purine analogue 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine. While he responded transiently to treatment, long term remission was not achieved indicating that additional therapeutic approches still need to be developed, for the management of this disorder.
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6/86. Sudden unexpected death associated with HHV-6 in an adolescent with tuberous sclerosis.

    A 14-year-old female with tuberous sclerosis and history of seizures was found dead in bed at home 3 days after she had been assessed as doing well at a routine neurology clinic appointment. She had been treated with an antiepileptic drug, felbamate, for 36 months and had been seizure-free except for one seizure episode 5 months before death. Postmortem examination revealed cerebral edema, with uncal and tonsillar herniation, and pulmonary edema, consistent with seizure-induced apnea. Multiple microglial nodules with mature perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and diffuse infiltrates were identified around subependymal tuberous sclerosis giant cell nodules. Immunostaining and electron microscopy revealed human herpesvirus-6-infected macrophages, astrocytes, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells in the subependymal tuberous sclerosis lesions and choroid plexus. Subacute human herpesvirus-6 encephalitis is postulated to have precipitated a seizure and thus sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in this otherwise stable adolescent patient.
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7/86. Clinicopathological findings of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in bone marrow: association with Epstein-Barr virus and apoptosis.

    Non-neoplastic hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), also called virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS), has been thought to be a distinct clinical entity. A spontaneous recovery is common, but the prognosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated VAHS is poor. However, the role of EBV has yet to be clearly elucidated. A retrospective study of the bone marrow of 30 cases, in which the diagnosis of non-neoplastic VAHS was clinicopathologically confirmed, was performed. We were unable to histologically confirm the presence of neoplastic lesions, especially lymphoma cell infiltration. Ten of the patients were children (aged less than 15 years) and young adults (aged under 20 years; median age, 10 years). Twenty patients were adults (aged over 21 years; median age, 48 years). Twelve of these patients died, while 18 showed a spontaneous recovery. We performed immunological staining and in situ hybridization (ISH) for EBV. To clarify the presence of apoptosis, an in situ apoptosis detection (tunnel) method was used. In situ hydridization showed an EBV-presence in 16 of the 30 patients. In addition, the EBV-presence was confined in the lymphocytes, especially T lymphocytes in double stainings. The number of EBV-infected cells varied; however, the EBV presence was associated with ages. Nine of the 10 children and young adults showed an EBV-presence, while EBV was detected in seven of the 20 adults. Especially in 10 patients aged over 49 years, no EBV was detected. According to the in situ apoptosis detection, apoptotic cells were increased in number and considered to be lymphoid cells, but not myeloid or histiocytic cells. Some apoptotic cells were phagocyted with histiocytes. Histologically, apoptosis may be one of the factors that induced phagocytosis.
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8/86. Encephalopathy associated with human herpesvirus 6 in a liver transplant recipient.

    Recent reports have documented human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) as a cause of high fever, bone marrow depression, and rash in liver transplant recipients in the absence of another known pathogen. We describe a 49-year-old liver transplant recipient who developed confusion, occipital headache, and involuntary movements of the limbs 3 weeks after orthotopic liver transplantation. HHV-6 was detected in the peripheral blood using a rapid culture assay. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction for HHV-6 was also positive. No other pathogens were identified. The patient improved after commencement of intravenous ganciclovir therapy. This case suggests HHV-6 needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained confusion in liver transplant recipients.
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9/86. Human herpes virus 6 fatal encephalitis in a bone marrow recipient.

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) has been implicated as a human pathogen in both normal and immunocompromised hosts. It has been associated with interstitial pneumonitis and bone marrow suppression after transplantation. We report here a case of fatal encephalitis in a bone marrow transplant recipient. This case illustrates the importance of considering HHV6 as an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised hosts.
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10/86. Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with reactivation of human herpesvirus-6 following high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation in young children.

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a serious complication of BMT. Several factors are important in the etiology of TMA, such as cyclosporin A, GVHD, irradiation, intensive conditioning chemotherapy and infection, which cause damage to vascular endothelial cells leading to activation of these cells. We describe two young children with TMA following high-dose chemotherapy with autologous BMT. Development of TMA was accompanied by reactivation of HHV-6, which was identified by both an increase in the copy number of HHV-6 dna in the peripheral blood and a significant increase in antibody titers to HHV-6. Thus, it was suggested that reactivation of HHV-6 together with high-dose chemotherapy played an important role in the pathogenesis of TMA in these patients. Since HHV-6 is known to infect vascular endothelial cells, and CMV which is virologically closely related to HHV-6, has been reported to be a pathogen that causes TMA, infection with HHV-6 of vascular endothelial cells may induce TMA via damage and activation of these cells.
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