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1/170. Pathologic odontoid fracture and benign fibrous histiocytoma of bone.

    We present the case of a 44-year-old female patient, who sustained an odontoid fracture after a minor trauma (uncomplicated fall). The radiologic evaluation revealed a skeletal tumor of the second cervical vertebra together with a fracture line at the base of the odontoid process of the axis. The patient underwent surgery, the tumor was resected and the odontoid was stabilised using an autologous cortico-cancellous bone graft and a halo fixator. Histologic examination revealed benign fibrous histiocytoma, which is reported to be a very rare skeletal tumor.
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2/170. Reconstruction of the hip abductors after resection of the proximal femur.

    Three patients with malignant bone tumors of the proximal femur underwent implantation of an endoprosthesis with reconstruction of the joint capsule and hip abductors using artificial mesh.
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3/170. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    A 24-year-old woman with CML underwent allogeneic BMT in August 1995 from a one-antigen HLA mismatched brother. Conditioning included BuCy2 and CsA and MTX were used to prevent GVHD. In July 1997 she developed right leg pain, lytic bone lesions of distal femur and a solid mass of soft tissue. Histological diagnosis of malignant fibrous histiocytoma was made. Despite treatment with surgery and chemotherapy (doxorubicin and ifosfamide), the patient died 1 year later with local recurrence of the tumor and liver, lung and brain metastases. The CML was in CR.
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4/170. Multiple maxillary and mandibular exostoses associated with multiple dermatofibromas: a case report.

    exostoses of the maxilla and mandible are nodular protuberances of mature bone that need to be accurately distinguished from other more diagnostically significant lesions, notably exosteal osteomas. Multiple dermatofibromas are rare and may be associated with altered immune function. We report the case of an otherwise healthy 47-year-old woman who was first seen with multiple maxillary and mandibular exostoses associated with multiple dermatofibromas. This association has not been previously reported.
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5/170. Angiomatoid (malignant) fibrous histiocytoma as a second tumour in a child with neuroblastoma.

    neuroblastoma occurring as a disseminated disease in children has a poor prognosis. Haematogenous metastases usually involve the marrow, bone, liver and skin. A second neoplasm may also develop. We describe a child with retroperitoneal neuroblastoma (stage 3) who developed a nodular mass in the inguinal area which was suspected to be a metastasis. Histopathology disclosed an angiomatoid (malignant) fibrous histiocytoma, and excision was curative. The occurrence of angiomatoid (malignant) fibrous histiocytoma as a second tumour in a patient with neuroblastoma has not previously been reported.
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6/170. A rare case of lung cancer associated with renal cell cancer and benign histiocytoma of bone.

    lung cancer often metastasizes to organs outside the thorax, and consequently radiological evaluation of distant metastasis has become standard procedure prior to surgery. Although positive radiological findings generally suggest distant metastasis, the possibility of the co-existence of a benign tumor and primary malignancies must be considered. Herein we report a case of surgical resection of histologically confirmed lung cancer associated with renal cell cancer and benign histiocytoma of the humerus.
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7/170. Malignant transformation of a giant cell tumor 25 years after initial treatment.

    The current authors report a patient in whom a malignant fibrous histiocytoma developed long after a benign giant cell tumor of bone was removed from the same site. Twenty-five years after a benign giant cell tumor of the lateral condyle of the proximal tibia had been treated by curettage and iliac bone grafting without radiotherapy, a 53-year-old woman noted progressive pain and an enlarging mass in the same area. Radiographs showed osteolytic change, whereas magnetic resonance imaging indicated a tumor arising at the site of the giant cell tumor and extending beyond the bone. Examination of an open biopsy specimen showed a high-grade malignant fibrous histiocytoma with some areas rich in giant cells. After five courses of caffeine assisted intraarterial chemotherapy, the tumor was resected with an adequate margin, and the defect was reconstructed with an implanted prosthesis of corresponding shape. The extensor mechanism of the knee was reinforced using an allograft of fascia from the tensor fascia lata muscle. The resected specimen showed a good histologic response (95% tumor necrosis) to preoperative chemotherapy. Excellent function in the knee has been regained with no evidence of disease recurrence. caffeine potentiated chemotherapy was effective in minimizing the extent of tumor excision, in this case of high-grade malignant fibrous histiocytoma representing transformation from a benign giant cell tumor.
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8/170. Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissues similar to bone giant cell tumor: A case report and literature review.

    In this report we describe a primary giant cell tumor (GCT) of soft tissues located in the left dorsal wrist of a 52-year-old man. Plain radiographs did not reveal any lesion in his carpal or hand bones. Although the tumor was clinically considered a ganglion initially, the microscopic features were identical to those found in classic GCT of bone. light microscopy showed a lesion composed of a homogeneously mixed proliferation of spindle and polygonal mononucleated stromal cells and evenly distributed multinucleated, osteoclast-like giant cells. Whereas most bone tumors have an extraosseous counterpart, only 13 cases of GCT in soft tissues had been published until 1998. Moreover, 64 new cases have been reported in three series. Nevertheless, most major reviews and textbooks do not consider this tumor as a specific entity and regard it as a low grade variant of malignant GCT of soft tissue. We describe the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of this rare benign neoplasm emphasizing the differential diagnosis with its malignant soft tissue counterpart, an ominous tumor.
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9/170. De novo malignant transformation of giant cell tumor of bone.

    Two cases of malignant lesions are reported, both of which arose secondary to an originally benign giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone. The first case was a typical benign GCT, which occurred in the left proximal tibia of a 31-year-old woman. The tumor was treated by curettage and bone grafting. However, it recurred twice during 15 years of follow-up. The second recurrence showed that the lesion histologically had turned into malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The second case also started as an initially benign GCT that arose in the left distal femur of a 41-year-old man. The patient underwent curettage and bone grafting. The lesion recurred 13 years postoperatively. The histological appearance of the recurrent tumor showed it to be an osteogenic sarcoma. In both patients, radiation and never been given. Malignant transformation has rarely been reported in patients with GCT of bone who have not received radiation treatment.
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10/170. Radiographic evaluation of malignant fibrous histiocytoma affecting maxillary alveolar bone: a report of 2 cases.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic findings of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) and to discuss the contribution of these findings to a differentiation of MFH from other malignant tumors of the head and neck. STUDY DESIGN: Two cases of MFH of the maxillary sinus affecting the alveolar bone were evaluated radiographically and scintigraphically. RESULTS: We reported the following findings, which have only seldom been described: the presence of fairly well-demarcated bone destruction in the intraoral radiograph; the relatively smooth surface, uniform density, or no necrotic area of the tumor; in computed tomograph images showing the clear separation of the tumor from surrounding soft tissues; bone scintigraphs reflecting the periosteal reaction to tumor invasion; and lymphoscintigraphy of the metastatic lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: We evaluated the radiographic findings from 2 cases of MFH and describe findings that may aid in the differentiation of MFH. These radiographic features may help dentists differentiate MFH from other malignant tumors in the head and neck, although MFH is a rare disease and there are no radiographic findings that would indicate a specific diagnosis of MFH.
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