Cases reported "Hodgkin Disease"

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1/407. Cerebral lymphomatoid granulomatosis. A report of two cases, with disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy in one.

    Neuropathologic findings in 2 cases of cerebral lymphomatoid granulomatosis with sequelae are presented. A 30-year old male with macular rash and pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis responded to prednisone terapy but developed acute intracranial hypertension with coma. A necrotizing hemorrhagic lesion was evident in the left putamen surrounded by diffuse and perivascular atypical lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. An 18-year old girl developed pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis, diplopia, slurred speech and right hemiparesis. brain scan, angiography and EEG suggested a left fronto-parietal mass assumed to represent lymphomatoid granulomatosis. She responded well to cerebral irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate and cytoxan but relapsed with seizures and increasing respiratory insufficiency. At autopsy, stigmata of cerebral lymphomatoid granulomatosis were absent but a parenchymatous degeneration consistent with disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy following antileukemic therapy in children, was found.
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keywords = radiation
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2/407. Directional coronary atherectomy for the diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced coronary artery stenosis.

    While radiation therapy has been known to cause myocardial and pericardial damage, its role in accentuating coronary artery disease in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors has been controversial. As younger patients with treatable cancers are being treated with mediastinal radiation, coronary artery disease as a cause for severe chest pain should be entertained as a possible diagnosis. We describe a 25-year-old male who presented with an inferior wall myocardial infarction 6 years after receiving mediastinal radiation and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. He was subsequently treated by directional atherectomy to a 95% lesion in the right coronary artery. Histological examination of the atherectomy specimen revealed evidence of radiation-induced endothelial damage that had resulted in plaque formation and subsequent ischemia. Possible mechanisms for radiation-induced coronary artery disease and treatment options are discussed.
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ranking = 9
keywords = radiation
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3/407. Simultaneous occurrence of Hodgkin's disease, nodal Langerhans' cell histiocytosis and multiple myeloma IgA(kappa).

    A 35-year-old man suffered simultaneously from nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's disease (HD), Langerhans' cell histiocytosis and multiple myeloma (MM). There was no prior history of irradiation or chemotherapy, and clinically the lymphoma was confined to cervical lymph nodes. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic lymphoma cells reacted with CD15 and CD30 markers. The patient's bone marrow exhibited a diffuse infiltration by rather atypical plasma cells showing kappa immunoglobulin light-chain restriction. At 14 months after the diagnosis, after autologous bone marrow transplantation, the clinical evolution is favourable with complete remission of the diseases. This is the first time that the coexistence of these three haematological disorders has been discussed, and only the fourth documented case of simultaneous HD and MM. Speculations about the significance of this finding are discussed.
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4/407. Surgical treatment of tracheomediastinal fistula from recurrent Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    The role of surgery in the management of Hodgkin's disease is usually diagnostic because chemotherapy and radiation are often curative. We report here the surgical treatment of a tracheomediastinal fistula from recurrent Hodgkin's lymphoma.
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5/407. Radiation-induced esophageal carcinoma 30 years after mediastinal irradiation: case report and review of the literature.

    A 54-year-old man who had been irradiated in 1964 for cervical involvement by Hodgkin's disease was admitted in December 1994 to our clinic with strong complaints of dysphagia. The reason was a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the proximal esophagus in the previously irradiated region. The patient had no risk factors (abuse of nicotine or alcohol) for the developement of esophageal carcinoma. A reirradiation was performed, but the disease progressed locally and two weeks after the beginning of the therapy the patient developed two tracheoesophagocutaneous fistulae. The radiation therapy was discontinued and the tumor stenosis was bridged by a tube closing the fistulae. A retrospective dose analysis to evaluate the applied doses will be performed. Furthermore, an overview of 66 cases of the literature with radiation-induced esophageal carcinoma analysed concerning applied dose and latent interval will be given. In conclusion the reported case fits the criteria for radiation-induced malignancies (Chudecki Br J Radiol 1972;45:303-4) known from literature: (1) a history of previous irradiation, (2) a cancer occurring within the irradiated area, (3) gross tissue damage due to an excessive dose of radiation, and (4) a long latent interval between irradiation and development of cancer. Esophageal carcinomas belong to the rare secondary malignancies after the therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless in patients with dysphagia they should be suspected as a differential diagnosis even many years after mediastinal irradiation. The treatment of these tumors is very difficult and is associated with a poor prognosis.
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ranking = 13
keywords = radiation
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6/407. Mediastinal irradiation: A risk factor for atherosclerosis of the internal thoracic arteries.

    Previous radiotherapy to the thorax is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. patients with radiation-induced atherosclerosis tend to be young and frequently have lesions involving the coronary ostia and left anterior descending artery. Bypass is often the most suitable method of revascularization, and given the young age of the patient, arterial conduits would be considered superior to vein grafts. However, the internal thoracic arteries can lie within the radiation field and may not be free of atherosclerosis. A 40-year-old man who required coronary artery bypass grafting for multivessel coronary artery disease 11 years following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma is reported. Preoperative angiography showed that the right internal thoracic artery had significant atherosclerosis and was unsuitable as a conduit.
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ranking = 6
keywords = radiation
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7/407. Pancreatic cancer in a young adult after treatment for Hodgkin's disease.

    The authors present a case of adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas, which arose 14 years after extended field irradiation for Stage IIA Hodgkin's disease. The patient was aged 37 years at the time of the pancreatic cancer, which was situated within the previously irradiated volume.
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8/407. Third malignancy after treatment of Hodgkin's disease.

    We present a case of 36-year-old man who was treated for IIB supradiaphragmatic lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease in 1972 (at the age of 11). The patient remained relapse-free after combined radiotherapy (irradiation of the right supraclavicular field) and chemotherapy (six MOPP cycles) and a 3-year supporting chemotherapy (Velbe). In 1993 he underwent spinal cord surgery for a right-sided "hour glass" schwannoma at C4-5 level. In 1996 a large formation histologically verified as "chondrosarcoma" occurred in the right supraclavicular and axillary regions. The pathogenesis of the second and third malignancies may be attributed to the histologic pattern of HD with long-term survival and increased cumulative risk, non-alternating MOPP courses and continued supporting therapy and radiotherapy given to the involved fields.
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9/407. Cardiac disease late after chest radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease: a case report.

    This report presents a case of occult constrictive pericarditis and mitral valve insufficiency following chest radiotherapy. A 44-year-old man had received radiotherapy for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease 8 years ago. At age 40 years, effusive pericarditis occurred and he was treated with intrapericardial drainage. biopsy revealed a fibrotic and thickened pericardium. He developed congestive heart failure 3 years later. The patient was found to have occult constrictive pericarditis and mitral valve insufficiency. He underwent mitral valve replacement, tricuspid annul plasty, and pericardiectomy. Although there is the benefit of cure for the Hodgkin's disease, the prognosis after treatment is affected by radiotherapy-induced heart disease. After radiotherapy of the chest and mediastinum, long-term cardiological follow-up is recommended in order to detecting patients with radiation-induced heart disease, such as the present case.
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10/407. Meningeal involvement by a transformed mycosis fungoides following Hodgkin's disease.

    A 58-year-old man had long-standing lesions of presumed large plaque parapsoriasis. Following treatment for nodal Hodgkin's disease (HD), these became more infiltrated, with a diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF). A few months later, nodules appeared on the right leg, which was lymphoedematous after inguinal irradiation for HD. Histopathological examination showed CD3 , CD30-, CD15- large pleomorphic lymphocytes, leading to the diagnosis of transformed MF. The cutaneous lesions were successfully treated with topical nitrogen mustard and interferon alfa-2b then methotrexate, but his general health worsened with depression and malaise, without specific neurological symptoms or extracutaneous spreading of the lymphoma. Cerebral computed tomographic scan revealed a cerebellar subdural collection, arachnoid cyst and quadriventricular hydrocephaly, initially considered to be non-specific. After a few weeks, clinical symptoms of intracranial hypertension appeared, and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealed meningeal involvement by the lymphoma. These cells were CD3-negative and the diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study, which revealed an identical clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gamma gene between cutaneous biopsies and the CSF. Repeated intrathecal injections of methotrexate and cranial irradiation were performed and the patient was still alive after 13 months. This case illustrates the possible meningeal involvement of MF that may be preceded by atypical and mild neurological or psychiatric symptoms, which may be dissociated from the evolution of the cutaneous lesions. Moreover, PCR study may be useful for both diagnosis and monitoring.
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ranking = 2
keywords = radiation
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