Cases reported "Holoprosencephaly"

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1/54. First-trimester ultrasound diagnosis of holoprosencephaly: three case reports.

    We present three cases of fetal holoprosencephaly diagnosed by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound examinations at 10 and 13 weeks' gestation. The diagnosis was based on two sonographic criteria: first, the intracranial finding of a single ventricle with a cerebral mantle and no visible midline structures but fusion of the thalami and corpus striatum; and, second, facial abnormalities, including hypotelorism. The ultrasound findings were confirmed by embryoscopy before abortion in one case and by pathological examination after abortion in two cases. Chromosome study of the three fetuses showed trisomy 18, triploidy and mosaic 18p deletion and duplication.
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2/54. prenatal diagnosis of alobar holoprosencephaly at 10 weeks of gestation.

    Alobar holoprosencephaly is an intracranial abnormality characterized by failure of proper cleavage of the prosencephalon, accompanied by incomplete midfacial development. The prenatal sonographic diagnosis of alobar holoprosencephaly was first described in 1984; however, there have been only two reports of alobar holoprosencephaly diagnosed in the first trimester. We report a case of alobar holoprosencephaly diagnosed at 10 weeks of gestation.
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3/54. First trimester sonographic diagnosis of holoprosencephaly.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with sonographic diagnosis of fetal holoprosencephaly in first trimester. SUBJECTS: A total of three fetuses with early prenatal diagnosis of holoprosencephaly were sonographically evaluated and followed up. RESULTS: The study revealed that all showed monoventricular cavity, fused thalami, no falx and cavum septum pellucidum. All of them were correctly diagnosed sonographically in the first trimester. Extracranial anomalies had also been identified in all three fetuses and all of them had facial abnormalities. Cytogenetic studies were successfully carried out in only one case. No polyhydramnios was demonstrated in all cases. CONCLUSION: This small series indicates that holoprosencephaly can be diagnosed in the first trimester. The most valuable clue to the diagnosis is the demonstration of the single ventricle.
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4/54. prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 3p(3p23-->pter) and monosomy 7q(7q36-->qter) in a fetus with microcephaly alobar holoprosencephaly and cyclopia.

    We report the prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 3p(3p23-->pter) and monosomy 7q(7q36-->qter) in a fetus with microcephaly, alobar holoprosencephaly and cyclopia. A 26-year-old primigravida woman was referred for genetic counselling at 23 gestational weeks due to sonographic findings of intra-uterine growth retardation and cranio-facial abnormalities. Level II ultrasonograms further demonstrated alobar holoprosencephaly, a proboscis above the eye and a single median orbit consistent with cyclopia. Genetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization on cells obtained from amniocentesis showed distal 3p trisomy (3p23-->pter) and 7q36 deletion, 46,XX,der(7)t(3;7)(p23;q36), resulting from a paternal t(3;7) reciprocal translocation. The pregnancy was terminated. autopsy further confirmed the presence of arrhinencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum and a single ventricle of the brain. The phenotype of this antenatally diagnosed case is compared with those observed in 10 previously reported cases with simultaneous occurrence of partial trisomy 3p and terminal deletion 7q. All cases are associated with severe forms of holoprosencephaly and facial dysmorphism. This delineates an autosomal imbalance syndrome or a dosage effect involving duplication of distal 3p/deficiency of terminal 7q and dysmorphogenesis of the forebrain and mid-face.
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5/54. Histological findings in a case of alobar holoprosencephaly diagnosed at 10 weeks of pregnancy.

    A case of alobar holoprosencephaly diagnosed at 10 3 weeks' gestation by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound examination followed by histological confirmation is presented. The diagnosis was based on two sonographic criteria: intracranial finding of a single ventricle with a mantle and no visible midline structures but fusion of the thalami and corpus striatum, and facial abnormalities, including hypotelorism and proboscis. The fetal karyotype was triploidy. The ultrasound findings were confirmed by pathological examination. The histological findings of proboscis, single lens and single ventricle with neural tissue remnants are presented.
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6/54. holoprosencephaly, sacral anomalies, and situs ambiguus in an infant with partial monosomy 7q/trisomy 2p and SHH and HLXB9 haploinsufficiency..

    We report an infant with holoprosencephaly (HPE), sacral anomalies, and situs ambiguus with a 46,XY,der(7)t(2;7)(p23.2;q36.1) karyotype as a result of an adjacent-1 segregation of a t(2;7)pat. The chromosomal abnormality was diagnosed prenatally after sonographic detection of HPE in the fetus. The baby was born at 37 weeks gestation, and died in the newborn period; he had dysmorphic features consistent with HPE sequence. Postmortem internal evaluation showed semilobar HPE, abdominal situs ambiguus, multiple segments of bowel atresia, dilatation of the ureters, and bony sacral anomalies. Molecular analysis confirmed hemizygosity for the SHH and HLXB9 genes, which are likely to be responsible for the HPE and sacral phenotypes, respectively. Immunohistochemical studies showed intact dopaminergic pathways in the mesencephalon, suggesting that midbrain dopamine neuron induction appears to require only one functioning SHH allele.
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7/54. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis associated with central diabetes insipidus.

    We describe a child who has central diabetes insipidus associated with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis without any apparent anterior pituitary dysfunction. This association further strengthens the concept that congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis may be a microform of holoprosencephaly.
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8/54. prenatal diagnosis of agnathia-holoprosencephaly: three-dimensional imaging by helical computed tomography.

    We report a case of agnathia-holoprosencephaly which was prenatally diagnosed based on helical computed tomography (CT) images obtained at 23 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination first showed the presence of alobar holoprosencephaly, but the facial structures were not clearly detailed. However, three-dimensional imaging by helical CT precisely demonstrated the most striking feature of agnathia: absence of the mandible. This technique provided us valuable information that contributed to the in utero diagnosis. In utero helical CT is a useful examination tool for the diagnosis of osteogenic abnormalities.
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9/54. Misclassification risk of patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate and manifestations of median facial dysplasia: A new variant of del(22q11.2) syndrome?

    The generic term median facial dysplasia (MFD) describes a subgroup of patients with cleft lip and palate exhibiting characteristic craniofacial defects: (1) short prolabium, (2) absence of frenulum labii, (3) hypoplasia of premaxilla, (4) absent upper central and lateral incisors of the cleft side, and (5) deficient septal cartilage and nasal spine. Gross brain malformations are usually absent in MFD. The same craniofacial malformations are also described in patients with holoprosencephaly sequence (HPE-S). We report on two male patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate showing the facial findings of MFD or HPE-S. Additional congenital malformations were anal atresia in one patient and severe cardiac defect in the other. In both, HPE was excluded by brain imaging, although uncommon brain anomalies were detected consisting of multiple white-matter lesions in the one patient and unusual enlargement and tortuosity of intracerebral blood vessels in both patients. In addition to facial anomalies, the patients also had psychiatric problems typically seen in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed a 22q11.2 microdeletion in both.
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10/54. prenatal diagnosis of partial monosomy 18p(18p11.2-->pter) and trisomy 21q(21q22.3-->qter) with alobar holoprosencephaly and premaxillary agenesis.

    A prenatal diagnosis of partial monosomy 18p(18p11.2-->pter) and trisomy 21q(21q22.3-->qter) in a fetus with alobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) and premaxillary agenesis (PMA) but without the classical down syndrome phenotype is reported. A 27-year-old primigravida woman was referred for genetic counselling at 21 weeks' gestation due to sonographic findings of craniofacial abnormalities. Level II ultrasonograms manifested alobar HPE and median orofacial cleft. cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on cells obtained from amniocentesis revealed partial monosomy 18p and a cryptic duplication of 21q,46,XY,der(18)t(18;21)(p11.2;q22.3), resulting from a maternal t(18;21) reciprocal translocation. The breakpoints were ascertained by molecular genetic analysis. The pregnancy was terminated. autopsy showed alobar HPE with PMA, pituitary dysplasia, clinodactyly and classical 18p deletion phenotype but without the presence of major typical phenotypic features of down syndrome. The phenotype of this antenatally diagnosed case is compared with those observed in six previously reported cases with monosomy 18p due to 18;21 translocation. The present study is the first report of concomitant deletion of HPE critical region of chromosome 18p11.3 and cryptic duplication of a small segment of distal chromosome 21q22.3 outside down syndrome critical region. The present study shows that cytogenetic analyses are important in detecting chromosomal aberrations in pregnancies with prenatally detected craniofacial abnormalities, and adjunctive molecular investigations are useful in elucidating the genetic pathogenesis of dysmorphism.
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