Cases reported "Holoprosencephaly"

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11/27. prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 4p: a new locus for holoprosencephaly?

    trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 4 is a well-known syndrome, and several observations have been made in the last 30 years. Herein, we report a new observation of trisomy 4p in a fetus with a semi-lobar holoprosencephaly (HPE), dysmorphic features and multiple malformations. The diagnosis of HPE was made, at 33 weeks' gestation, on the fetus of a healthy G1P0 woman. amniocentesis was performed for chromosome analysis and additional material was found on a chromosome 22. The couple elected to terminate the pregnancy and fetal examination was realized. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies were performed on the fetus and the parents, which showed that the additional material found on one chromosome 22 corresponded to the short arm of chromosome 4 and therefore led us to establish a diagnosis of trisomy 4p inherited from the malsegregation of a paternal translocation t(4;22)(q12;q11.1). The etiology of HPE is very heterogeneous; it includes non-genetic factors such as maternal diabetes and genetic causes. HPE cases have been described in association with many chromosomal anomalies, trisomy 13 being the most frequent. However, to our knowledge, HPE has never been previously reported in association with a trisomy involving solely the short arm of chromosome 4.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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12/27. Pseudotrisomy 13: clinical findings and genetic implications.

    The combination of holoprosencephaly, postaxial polydactyly, and normal karyotype has been termed pseudotrisomy 13 syndrome. Here, we report the prenatal diagnosis of pseudotrisomy 13 in three siblings suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance of this syndrome. Clinical overlap with hydrolethalus syndrome, smith-lemli-opitz syndrome, Meckel syndrome, and pallister-hall syndrome is discussed.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = trisomy
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13/27. A case of trisomy 21 with holoprosencephaly: the fifth case.

    A case of trisomy 21 with holoprosencephaly, the fifth case in the literature, is described. The patient also had extracephalic malformations frequently associated with down syndrome. The possibility of a causal relationship between trisomy 21 and holoprosencephaly is discussed.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = trisomy
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14/27. holoprosencephaly-polydactyly ('pseudotrisomy 13') syndrome: a syndrome with features of hydrolethalus and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. A collaborative multicentre study.

    A syndrome of holoprosencephaly and postaxial polydactyly, associated with hydrocephalus, heart defect, adrenal hypoplasia, and other visceral malformations, has been observed in five unrelated children with normal chromosomes. Clinical overlap with lethal acrodysgenital dwarfism (smith-lemli-opitz syndrome type II) and hydrolethalus syndrome is discussed. Recessive inheritance seems likely.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = trisomy
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15/27. Pseudo-trisomy 13 syndrome.

    We have coined the term "pseudo-trisomy 13 syndrome" to designate cases of holoprosencephaly, severe facial anomalies, postaxial polydactyly, various other congenital defects, and normal chromosomes. Eleven instances are summarized. Two pairs of sibs and two other cases with consanguinity suggest autosomal recessive inheritance. Autosomal recessive inheritance is possible. Alternately, an undetected microdeletion and etiologic heterogeneity (some cases possibly representing dominant new mutations) must be considered. Further delineation is necessary. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a focus for further discussion of the problem.
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ranking = 0.625
keywords = trisomy
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16/27. holoprosencephaly: examples of clinical variability and etiologic heterogeneity.

    Clinical variability and causal heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly is discussed in relation to several newborn infants with cyclopia (cases 4,5,6), cebocephaly (cases 2,3), and premaxillary agenesis (case 1). In subjects with holoprosencephaly, the presence of multiple malformations is an indicator of concomitant chromosome aberrations, as in present case 1 (down syndrome) and case 3 (trisomy 13). Cases 5 and 6 are two monozygotic twins with the same type of cyclopia and alobar holoprosencephaly recognized by prenatal ultrasonography. The diagnostic importance of ultrasonographic, cytogenetic, and pathological studies is pointed out in view of etiologic evaluation, genetic counseling, and prevention of holoprosencephaly.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = trisomy
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17/27. trisomy 22 with holoprosencephaly: a clinicopathologic study.

    trisomy 22 (47, XY, 22) was found at 17 weeks gestation in one fetus of a twin gestation. The karyotypes of both parents and of the other twin were normal. Abnormal prenatal findings included maternal pre-eclampsia, fetal growth retardation, and progressive intracranial sonolucency of the trisomic fetus. Delivery by cesarean section at 36 weeks gestation yielded a normal healthy female weighing 2,822 grams and a markedly macerated dysmorphic male weighing 642 grams. holoprosencephaly was found in the trisomic fetus, an unusual feature in trisomy 22. Additional findings in this case are compared to other findings in the literature.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = trisomy
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18/27. Further delineation of pseudotrisomy 13 syndrome: a case without polydactyly.

    We report on a baby with holoprosencephaly, median cleft lip, cardiac and genital anomalies, normal upper limbs, and a 46,XX karyotype. We also reviewed 22 karyotypically normal cases whose clinical features resembled trisomy 13 syndrome and compared them with the case we present. The problem of variable expression of the pseudotrisomy 13 syndrome versus genetic heterogeneity is illustrated.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = trisomy
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19/27. Duplication and deletion of chromosome band 2(p21p22) resulting from a familial interstitial insertion (2;11)(p21;p15).

    Routine amniocentesis for advanced maternal age led to the prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with a karyotype of a 46,XX,del(2)(p21p22). At delivery the baby had holoprosencephaly as the major clinical finding, which has been associated with a deletion of band 2p21 in several other case reports. Chromosome studies of the parents showed a normal 46,XY karyotype in the father, and a balanced interstitial insertion 46,XX dir ins (11;2)(p15.1;p21p22) in the mother. Subsequent chromosome studies of other relatives documented a 23-year-old half-brother of the proposita with a partial trisomy for the segment deleted in the proposita. The half-brother showed the derivative chromosome 11 from the mother, resulting in a 46,XY,der(11)dup(2)(p21p22) karyotype. Major clinical findings include short stature, mild developmental delay, and behavior abnormalities. A half-sister of the proposita is also a balanced carrier of the dir ins (11;2) (p15.1;p21p22.2). The association of the deletion chromosome band 2p21 and the clinical finding of holoprosencephaly is further supported by the findings in this family.
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ranking = 0.2429983898404
keywords = trisomy, partial trisomy
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20/27. Two siblings with partial trisomy 15 and monosomy 21 associated with central nervous system anomalies.

    A sister and a brother with 46, XX (46, XY), -21, der (15) (q22.1; q22.1) mat were reported whose mother had a karyotype of 46, XX, t(15; 21)(q22.1; 22.1) and was phenotypically normal. Both sibs were mentally retarded and dysmorphic. Moreover, the sister had a holoprosencephaly with congenital hydrocephalus, and the brother showed congenital hydrocephalus.
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ranking = 0.97199355936161
keywords = trisomy, partial trisomy
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