Cases reported "Horse Diseases"

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11/12. Clinical similarities and close genetic relationship of human and animal borna disease virus.

    borna disease virus (BDV) is the prototype genus of a new family, bornaviridae, within the order mononegavirales. BDV naturally infects animals and man. The symptomatology in animals ranges from subclinical infection to rare cases of encephalitis. Asymptomatic infection seemed more frequent than expected, based on antibody data from 100 healthy horses derived from different stables with a history of diseased cases (30-40% carriers). Likewise, phasic episodes of a neurobehavioral syndrome followed by recovery were much more common than fatal neurologic disease. They were paralleled by expression of BDV antigens (N-protein p40, P-protein p24) and RNA transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating viral activation. Representative longitudinal studies showed that episodes of depressive illness in humans as well as apathetic phases in infected horses were accompanied by antigen expression and followed a similar clinical course. After recovery, BDV antigen disappeared. This temporal congruence, together with the recent isolation of infectious BDV from such patients, points to a contributory role of this virus in human affective disorders. Successful amelioration of BDV-induced neurobehavioral disease in horses with antidepressants applied in psychiatry, supported a common viral pathomechanism, involving reversible disturbances of the neurotransmitter network in the limbic system. Sequences of genetic material amplified from infected animal tissue and human PBMCs revealed a close interspecies relationship and high sequence conservation of the BDV genome. In human BDV isolates, however, single unique mutations were prominent in four genes. This finding supports the hypothesis that despite of high genomic conservation, species-specific genotypes may be definable, provided the sequences are derived from RNA of infectious virus.
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12/12. Zoonotic disease in australia caused by a novel member of the paramyxoviridae.

    Twenty-three horses and three humans in queensland, australia, were infected with a novel member of the paramyxoviridae family of viruses in two geographically distinct outbreaks. Two of the humans died-one died of rapid-onset respiratory illness, and the other died of encephalitis. The third infected human developed an influenza-like illness and made a complete recovery. All infected humans had close contact with sick horses. Since the two outbreaks occurred at sites 1,000 km apart and no known contact between the two groups of humans and horses occurred, extensive testing of animals and birds common to the two areas was conducted. fruit bats (Pteropus species) were found to carry a virus identical to that found in the infected humans and horses. Although there was no contact between the infected humans and the bats, some form of close contact between the horses and bats is the likely mode of infection.
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