Cases reported "Humeral Fractures"

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1/72. The spiral compression plate for proximal humeral shaft nonunion: a case report and description of a new technique.

    We present a case of humeral nonunion managed with a dynamic compression plate (DCP) contoured in a spiral fashion to preserve the deltoid muscle insertion. A forty-one-year-old woman sustained a closed proximal third humeral shaft fracture with an associated supraclavicular brachial plexus injury. She presented five months later with an atrophic nonunion of the proximal humeral shaft, inferior subluxation of the humeral head, and a resolving brachial plexopathy. Autogenous cancellous bone grafting and open reduction and internal fixation with a narrow DCP was performed. The deltoid muscle insertion was preserved by contouring the plate to fix the proximal humerus laterally over the greater tuberosity and anteriorly over the mid-humeral shaft. During the postoperative period, the humeral head reduced spontaneously. Five months after surgery, the fracture healed, and an excellent clinical result was achieved. We recommend the use of the spiral DCP for proximal shaft fractures and nonunions when preservation of the deltoid insertion is desirable.
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2/72. Healing of nonunion of a fractured lateral condyle of the humerus by pulsing electromagnetic induction.

    Nonoperative salvage of a surgically resistant case of established nonunion of a fracture of the lateral condyle of the humerus in a child is described. Solid union was achieved by treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields. A review of the literature indicates that this is the first published report of such a case.
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3/72. Sideswipe elbow fractures.

    A retrospective review of all cases of sideswipe elbow fractures (SSEFs) treated at two community hospitals from 1982 to 1992 was conducted to determine the functional outcome of the operative treatment of SSEFs. All five injuries involved the left elbow, and they included open fractures of the olecranon, the radius and ulna, the ulna and humerus, the humerus, and traumatic amputation of the arm. Concomitant injuries included three radial nerve palsies and two injuries each to the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and brachial artery. Treatment included irrigation, debridement (repeated if necessary), open reduction and internal fixation, external fixation (one case), and delayed amputation (one case). An average of 130/-10 degrees elbow flexion/extension, and 60/60 degrees supination/pronation was obtained for the three of four patients with reconstructions who returned for follow-up.
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4/72. Heat-induced segmental necrosis after reaming of one humeral and two tibial fractures with a narrow medullary canal.

    In three cases referred to our clinic (a simple fracture of the humeral shaft, a simple, closed fracture, and a wedge fracture of the mid-third of the tibia), bone necrosis had resulted from excessive heat produced by reaming extremely narrow medullary cavities (5-5.5 mm diameter) with the 9 mm front-cutting reamer as part of a reamed nailing procedure. In any one case, different degrees of damage can occur from the metaphysis to the diaphysis. Based on the clinical course and the histological evaluation, we postulate that heat-induced damage can be divided into four degrees of severity (0-3): Grade 0: no damage; no devascularization, no heat-induced damage. Grade 1: The heat damaged zone is cut away during subsequent reaming, the only damage is devascularization. Grade 2: The damaged zones are not eliminated by subsequent reaming. The bone is devascularized and heat damaged. Grade 3: The entire cross section of the bone including the periosteum is devitalized by exposure to excessive heat. Depending on the severity of additional damage to the soft tissues, grave consequences are to be expected and further operations are unavoidable. The effects of heat-induced damage are particularly critical in the presence of infection (cases 2 and 3). The fundamental aspects and the extent of heat necrosis will be discussed. After discussion with the AO Technical Commission on the cause of heat-induced necrosis, we would recommend the following preventive measures: 1. preoperative measurement of the smallest diameter of the medullary cavity in two planes. 2. reaming with the standard instrumentation (9 mm) only if the medullary cavity has a diameter of at least 8 mm at its narrowest point. 3. Extremely narrow cavities should first be reamed manually or an alternative to nailing should be sought. 4. It is strongly recommended that only sharp reamers be used in such cases and blunt or damaged reamers replaced.
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5/72. disseminated intravascular coagulation in a patient undergoing removal of humeral head for pain relief.

    disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was recently observed intraoperatively in a patient who required removal of her right humeral head for pain relief. Despite normal preoperative coagulation parameters, the patient developed wound oozing soon after suturing the skin. Coagulation profile revealed decreased platelets, plasma coagulation factors and fibrinogen in association with elevated fibrin degradation products. To manage the DIC, urinastatin and gabexate mesilate, along with blood component replacement, proved effective.
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6/72. Lower limb compartment syndrome resulting from malignant hyperthermia.

    We report a case of compartment syndrome complicating malignant hyperthermia (MH) in a previously healthy patient. An intraoperative MH crisis responded to treatment with intravenous dantrolene. The patient subsequently developed a lower limb compartment syndrome which required fasciotomy. Recognition of the link between MH and compartment syndrome helps ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment of this rare complication of MH.
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7/72. Nonunion of a pediatric lateral condyle fracture without ulnar nerve palsy: sixty-year follow-up.

    Displaced lateral condyle fractures in the pediatric population are usually treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Significant complications associated with the nonoperative management include nonunion, malunion, deformity, and tardy ulnar nerve palsy. However, few cases of nonunion of the lateral condyle and tardy ulnar nerve palsy with long-term follow-up have been reported. We present a radiographically documented case of a pediatric lateral condyle fracture and subsequent nonunion with significant cubitus valgus deformity without ulnar nerve palsy sixty years following injury.
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8/72. Is there a place for external fixation in humeral shaft fractures?

    There is a good indication for unilateral axial dynamic external fixation in fractures of the humeral shaft when the fracture appears in the distal third or in cases of bilateral fractures. A non-union or a posttraumatic paralysis of the radial nerve may be indications for external fixation as well as fractures associated with multiple injuries. Further indications include osteitis, infected non-union and comminuted fracture. There is maximum protection of the soft tissue with this method of treatment. External fixation combines the advantages of conservative and operative treatment by influencing callus formation by dynamizing, distraction or compression. Minimizing soft tissue damage facilitates the decision for early exploration of the radial nerve in cases of palsy. A safer positioning technique of the distal screws of the fixator is described.
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9/72. Endoscopic bone graft for delayed union and nonunion.

    We performed endoscopic bone grafting for eight patients of delayed union and nonunion which developed after femoral and humeral shaft fractures. The mean interval from initial intervention to endoscopic bone grafting was 7.3 months. Six patients of delayed union and nonunion healed at 4.1 months on average. Two patients had unsatisfactory healing and eventually underwent non-endoscopic revisional surgery. There was no intraoperative on postoperative complication. Endoscopic bone grafting can be a less invasive alternative, obtaining rapid bone union in cases of compromised healing of the diaphyseal fracture.
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keywords = operative
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10/72. Removal of an intrathoracic migrated fixation pin by thoracoscopy.

    Migration of orthopedic fixation pins into the thoracic cavity can result in perforation of pulmonary vasculature, aorta, bronchus, atrium, or ventricle. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is tantamount in preventing devastating consequences. A patient who had fixation of a right humeral fracture weeks later had intrathoracic migration of a fixation pin, found by routine postoperative radiographic examination. Because the patient was asymptomatic, we removed the pin with a thoracoscopic operation. The foreign body was retrieved successfully without intraoperative or postoperative complication.
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