Cases reported "Humeral Fractures"

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1/12. Heat-induced segmental necrosis after reaming of one humeral and two tibial fractures with a narrow medullary canal.

    In three cases referred to our clinic (a simple fracture of the humeral shaft, a simple, closed fracture, and a wedge fracture of the mid-third of the tibia), bone necrosis had resulted from excessive heat produced by reaming extremely narrow medullary cavities (5-5.5 mm diameter) with the 9 mm front-cutting reamer as part of a reamed nailing procedure. In any one case, different degrees of damage can occur from the metaphysis to the diaphysis. Based on the clinical course and the histological evaluation, we postulate that heat-induced damage can be divided into four degrees of severity (0-3): Grade 0: no damage; no devascularization, no heat-induced damage. Grade 1: The heat damaged zone is cut away during subsequent reaming, the only damage is devascularization. Grade 2: The damaged zones are not eliminated by subsequent reaming. The bone is devascularized and heat damaged. Grade 3: The entire cross section of the bone including the periosteum is devitalized by exposure to excessive heat. Depending on the severity of additional damage to the soft tissues, grave consequences are to be expected and further operations are unavoidable. The effects of heat-induced damage are particularly critical in the presence of infection (cases 2 and 3). The fundamental aspects and the extent of heat necrosis will be discussed. After discussion with the AO Technical Commission on the cause of heat-induced necrosis, we would recommend the following preventive measures: 1. preoperative measurement of the smallest diameter of the medullary cavity in two planes. 2. reaming with the standard instrumentation (9 mm) only if the medullary cavity has a diameter of at least 8 mm at its narrowest point. 3. Extremely narrow cavities should first be reamed manually or an alternative to nailing should be sought. 4. It is strongly recommended that only sharp reamers be used in such cases and blunt or damaged reamers replaced.
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keywords = tibia
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2/12. The application of arthroscopic principles to bone grafting of delayed union of long bone fractures.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of applying arthroscopic techniques to autogenous bone grafting of long bone fracture delayed union. There were 9 patients in this initial series, including 4 patients (average age, 37 years) with humeral lesions and 5 patients (average age, 25 years) with tibial fractures. There were 6 men and 3 women. Techniques customarily employed in arthroscopy were used to visualize, expose, and deliver the onlay cancellous bone grafts. Bony union occurred in all but 1 patient in an average of 4 months. This patient had a fibrous union and sustained a reinjury that led to successful repeat open bone graft surgery. The arthroscopic approach for bone grafting of certain long bone delayed union appears to be a safe and effective procedure. The procedure is best suited for patients with mechanically stabilized fragments, and it lends itself to those with overlying skin or soft tissue compromise. There are some relative contraindications: grossly unstable fragments, severe malunion, and/or infection.
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keywords = tibia
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3/12. Spontaneous fractures in the differential diagnosis of fractures in children.

    A four-year-old male with cerebral palsy and spasticity, as a result of a non-accidental head injury sustained when he was two years old, died of pneumonia. Postmortem full body x-rays revealed fractures of varying ages of the left humerus and both femora, tibiae, and fibulae. This led to a thorough investigation of the case by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner. child abuse, accidents, metabolic bone disorders, other primary or secondary diseases of the bones, and pathological fractures were ruled out. The final diagnosis was spontaneous fractures secondary to osteopenia. The term spontaneous fractures is used to define fractures that occur without any known external cause, especially in cerebral palsy patients with spasticity.
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keywords = tibia
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4/12. An unusual stress fracture in a multiple sport athlete.

    Most overuse injuries are a direct result of repetitive stresses which may create a condition of maltraining. Young athletes are no exception to this rule. swimming and baseball both create stresses to the humerus which may result in injuries to the shoulder and upper extremity. Stress fractures (fatigue fractures) are usually limited to the lower extremity (i.e., tibia or metatarsal). upper extremity stress fractures, especially of the humerus, are very uncommon. precipitating factors include repetitive stresses, low grade external forces, rapid application of muscular force to the bone, or an underlying disease or pathologic weakness of the bone. The majority of these fractures are primarily due to abnormal and repetitive stresses to bones. This case study examines the mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, and treatment of a clinically apparent stress fracture which ultimately converted to an overt humerus fracture in a 14-yr-old cross-trained athlete.
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keywords = tibia
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5/12. MRI demonstration of radiographically occult fractures: what have we been missing?

    During the course of MRI examinations of the knee for possible internal derangement, the hip for avascular necrosis, and the shoulder for rotator cuff tears, we have encountered many examples of unsuspected fractures of the tibial plateau, femoral condyles, pelvis, hip and proximal humerus. These fractures were either radiographically inapparent or demonstrated very subtle abnormalities that were missed on prospective interpretation. In addition, a large number of patients have been found to demonstrate evidence of intraosseous trabecular disruption, or edema and hemorrhage of medullary bone, or stress type injuries, all of which are radiographically occult. The clinical significance of these osseous abnormalities varies and is dependent upon the degree of injury. It is believed that an awareness of these osseous abnormalities will improve the accuracy of MRI interpretation, will heighten an appreciation of the subtle radiographic abnormalities that may be present, and will improve patient evaluation and management.
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keywords = tibia
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6/12. Correlation of postoperative bone scintigraphy with healing of vascularized fibula transfer: a clinical study.

    This study examines the usefulness and reliability of bone scintigraphy in correlation with radiological and clinical evidence of bone healing in 15 patients who underwent microvascular transfer of the fibula. All patients were followed for a minimum of 18 months postoperatively. technetium-99 methylene diphosphonate bone scans and the most recent radiographs were blindly rereviewed. Bone scintigraphic results were characterized as (1) clearly positive (i.e., excellent visualization of the fibula), (2) clearly negative (i.e., no evidence of tracer uptake in the fibula), or (3) indeterminate (i.e., artifact present as a result of metallic or soft tissue interference). Bone radiographs were classified into three typical patterns: (1) complete bony union and graft hypertrophy, (2) incomplete union (either distal or proximal) requiring a second procedure), and (3) nonunion, with increased proximal and distal lucency (with or without pathological fracture) and loss of graft definition. Eleven patients had positive scintigraphic scans postoperatively. In 8 no subsequent procedure was necessary; 2 patients required additional bone grafts to augment the osseous reconstruction; viable fibulas were seen at reoperation. One patient with a positive scan showed decreased graft definition at four months followed by autograft fracture. Three patients had indeterminate scans, 2 of whom evidenced uncomplicated clinical and radiological union. One patient had a clearly negative scan and ultimately tibia-fibula synostosis was required to attain stability. Bone scintigraphy appears to correlate with survival, but not necessarily union, of a vascularized fibula autograft. Additional monitoring techniques should be used in combination with a one-time bone scan to both monitor the patency of the microanastomoses and to prioritize the orthopedic management of the patient.
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keywords = tibia
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7/12. Management of resistant pseudarthrosis of long bones.

    A retrospective review was undertaken of 15 patients with long-bone pseudarthrosis with long-standing nonunion. These patients were referred to a tertiary care center after their fractures failed to unite after numerous surgical attempts as well as a course of electrical stimulation. Fourteen patients had nonunion of the tibia, and one had nonunion of a humerus fracture. Twelve were originally Gustillo Grade II or III fractures, and four sustained multiple injuries. The average duration of nonunion before presentation to the clinic was 22.5 months. Five patients presented as infected nonunions. Each nonunion was analyzed with specific reference to injury mechanism, skin and bone conditions, presence of infection, primary treatment protocol, and selection criteria for treatment with electrical stimulation. review of the data revealed that the most common factor associated with failure of electrical stimulation treatment was inappropriate patient selection, according to criteria previously published for the use of these techniques. Treatment modalities consisted of intramedullary fixation in three, open reduction and internal fixation using Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen (AO) technique in nine, and external fixation in three. All patients were bone grafted. The mean follow-up duration was 1.5 years. Nonunions were healed in fourteen patients. Twelve were fully weight bearing at six months, and one at 12 months. Success was defined as restoration of a functional extremity, giving a success rate of 87%. A thorough reevaluation of the original treatment regimen and a return to basic principles of operative fracture management and bone grafting can yield excellent results, even in patients with recalcitrant nonunion.
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keywords = tibia
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8/12. Triplane fracture of the distal humeral epiphysis.

    An 11-year-2-month-old girl sustained a triplane fracture in the distal humeral epiphysis. Open reduction and internal fixation were performed, producing an excellent result, after closed manipulation failed to achieve complete reduction. The triplane fracture can occur in areas other than the distal tibia.
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keywords = tibia
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9/12. Selection, evaluation and indications for electrical stimulation of ununited fractures.

    Management of nonunions requires careful and critical assessment of the true biologic status of the fracture. The mere radiographic persistence of a fracture line does not invariably indicate nonunion. Ten percent of fractures considered initially to be ununited in this series healed spontaneously without further treatment. The patient who has no pain with weight-bearing and no demonstrable motion on careful stress studies does not usually require further treatment, except for protection against reinjury. Intraosseous venography may be useful to distinguish the delayed from the nonunion in order to institute appropriate and early treatment. Percutaneous direct-current electrostimulation is proving to be a reliable and effective method of managing the most common nonunion of the tibia or distal femur. It appears less satisfactory for the more proximal femoral fractures and for fractures of the humerus. Electrical stimulation does not eliminate the need to stabilize the nonunion of either the femur or the upper limb. Electrical stimulation also does not eliminate the need for bone grafting in approximately 15% to 20% of nonunions. The fractures' biologic inability to respond may be identifiable by 99MTc diphosphonate bone scan. The implantable direct-current electrical stimulatory device proved ineffective in this series. Hopefully, further development of this technology may produce more consistent results in the future. The electromagnetic noninvasive stimulator appears to be a useful alternative method to the semi-invasive system. This, of course, should depend on the individual needs of the patient and the nature and location of the fracture. Continued technologic improvement in all electrical stimulatory methods should broaden their usefulness and applicability. However, the healing status of the fracture and the processes by which each fracture responds must be carefully assessed to appreciate what is being effected by electrical stimulation. Critical evaluation and clarification of indications are essential if the patient is to be offered the most effective therapy available.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = tibia
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10/12. Fracture of the humerus in ball throwers. A consequence of idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis in a female handball player?

    We report a case of a spontaneous humeral shaft fracture sustained during pitching by a 22-year-old previously healthy female European team handball player. The fracture was treated by closed reposition followed by immobilization in a hanging cast. The fracture healed uneventfully, and normal function and range of motion were reached within 6 months. Between 1 and 2 years after the fracture, bone mineral measurements showed a decreased bone mass (1.43-2.56 SD below mean values of normal women) at all measuring sites; proximal tibia bilaterally (bone mineral content (right) = 2.68 g/cm, bone mineral content (left) = 2.79 g/cm), lumbar spine (bone mineral density (L2-4) = 0.814 g/cm2), and right hip (bone mineral density (neck) = 0.697 g/cm2, bone mineral density (Ward's) = 0.626 g/cm2). A thorough endocrinological examination indicated that a state of bone loss existed, but no specific endocrine disease was found. The unusual fracture presented must be considered the result of the torsional forces transmitted to a severely osteoporotic bone.
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keywords = tibia
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