Cases reported "humeral fractures"

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1/376. Injuries of the axillary artery caused by fractures of the neck of the humerus.

    Three patients are presented in whom the axillary artery was injured in combination with a simple fracture of the neck of the humerus. The pathological anatomy, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of these lesions are discussed with reference to our own experience. ( info)

2/376. The spiral compression plate for proximal humeral shaft nonunion: a case report and description of a new technique.

    We present a case of humeral nonunion managed with a dynamic compression plate (DCP) contoured in a spiral fashion to preserve the deltoid muscle insertion. A forty-one-year-old woman sustained a closed proximal third humeral shaft fracture with an associated supraclavicular brachial plexus injury. She presented five months later with an atrophic nonunion of the proximal humeral shaft, inferior subluxation of the humeral head, and a resolving brachial plexopathy. Autogenous cancellous bone grafting and open reduction and internal fixation with a narrow DCP was performed. The deltoid muscle insertion was preserved by contouring the plate to fix the proximal humerus laterally over the greater tuberosity and anteriorly over the mid-humeral shaft. During the postoperative period, the humeral head reduced spontaneously. Five months after surgery, the fracture healed, and an excellent clinical result was achieved. We recommend the use of the spiral DCP for proximal shaft fractures and nonunions when preservation of the deltoid insertion is desirable. ( info)

3/376. Severance of the radial nerve complicating transverse fracture of the mid-shaft of the humerus.

    A case of radial nerve injury associated with a transverse fracture of the middle third of the humerus is reported. The radial nerve was found to be completely severed at the fracture site. Early exploration of the nerve and internal fixation of the fracture gave a satisfactory result. ( info)

4/376. Salvage of contaminated fractures of the distal humerus with thin wire external fixation.

    Fractures and osteotomies of the distal humerus that are contaminated or infected represent a difficult management problem. Stable anatomic fixation with plates and screws, the acknowledged key to a good result in the treatment of bicondylar fractures, may be unwise. A thin wire circular (Ilizarov) external fixator was used as salvage treatment in such complex situations in five patients. The fixator allowed functional mobilization of the elbow while allowing achievement of the primary goal of eradicating the infection or colonization. Two patients required a second operation for fixation of a fibrous union of the lateral condyle. One patient with a vascularized fibular graft later required triple plate fixation for malalignment at the distal host and graft junction. Four of five patients ultimately achieved complete union. The fracture remained ununited in one patient who has declined additional intervention. All five patients achieved at least 85 degrees ulnohumeral motion, two after a secondary elbow capsulectomy performed after healing was achieved. This experience suggested that the Ilizarov construct, although not a panacea, represents a reliable method of skeletal stabilization that allows functional mobilization while elimination of infection or colonization is ensured. If necessary, stiffness and incomplete healing can be addressed with an increased margin of safety at subsequent operations. ( info)

5/376. Healing of nonunion of a fractured lateral condyle of the humerus by pulsing electromagnetic induction.

    Nonoperative salvage of a surgically resistant case of established nonunion of a fracture of the lateral condyle of the humerus in a child is described. Solid union was achieved by treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields. A review of the literature indicates that this is the first published report of such a case. ( info)

6/376. Sideswipe elbow fractures.

    A retrospective review of all cases of sideswipe elbow fractures (SSEFs) treated at two community hospitals from 1982 to 1992 was conducted to determine the functional outcome of the operative treatment of SSEFs. All five injuries involved the left elbow, and they included open fractures of the olecranon, the radius and ulna, the ulna and humerus, the humerus, and traumatic amputation of the arm. Concomitant injuries included three radial nerve palsies and two injuries each to the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and brachial artery. Treatment included irrigation, debridement (repeated if necessary), open reduction and internal fixation, external fixation (one case), and delayed amputation (one case). An average of 130/-10 degrees elbow flexion/extension, and 60/60 degrees supination/pronation was obtained for the three of four patients with reconstructions who returned for follow-up. ( info)

7/376. Management of nonunion below proximal humeral prosthesis.

    Fractures below proximal humeral prostheses are rare and their successful management presents technical difficulties. Closed treatment usually results in nonunion. A case illustrating this disabling complication is reported and a literature review is presented that summarizes the classification, treatment options, and complications of these uncommon fractures. ( info)

8/376. Endoscopic bone graft for delayed union and nonunion.

    Nonunion and delayed union are serious consequences in the treatment of fractures. Bone graft has been a mainstay of treatment for nonunion and delayed union. But with rapid development of the endoscopic procedure, bone grafting can be performed after curettage of fibrous tissue around the fracture gap and sclerotic fracture end under direct visual control of the endoscope. This technical note provides procedures for this technique. ( info)

9/376. classification and treatment of intercondyloid fractures of the humerus.

    The authors describe the satisfactory results obtained in sixteen intercondyloid fractures of the humerus, thirteen of which were treated surgically. The preference for surgical treatment in such fractures is based in the assumption that, as in all articular fractures, a good functional result can only be achieved if there is the most perfect possible reconstruction of the fragments and the joint surface. A classification is therefore suggested which is based not purely on anatomical criteria, but is also related to treatment and prognosis. The slendor nature of the distal end of the humerus and the danger of metal reaction call for the use of fixation devices that are efficient but slender, such as fine screws and crossed wires. The precise method of fixation is conditioned above all by the direction of the fracture lines. More solid fixation with early mobilisation can be achieved by compression screws, and less solid fixation with longer immobilisation is achieved by fixation with crossed Kirschner wires. Consequently, the more oblique types of fracture with fragments with long beaks that allow more stable fixation with compression screws have the more favourable prognosis. In the evaluation of results, the authors emphasize the importance of using parameters which take into account the functionally useful range of joint movement. ( info)

10/376. Heat-induced segmental necrosis after reaming of one humeral and two tibial fractures with a narrow medullary canal.

    In three cases referred to our clinic (a simple fracture of the humeral shaft, a simple, closed fracture, and a wedge fracture of the mid-third of the tibia), bone necrosis had resulted from excessive heat produced by reaming extremely narrow medullary cavities (5-5.5 mm diameter) with the 9 mm front-cutting reamer as part of a reamed nailing procedure. In any one case, different degrees of damage can occur from the metaphysis to the diaphysis. Based on the clinical course and the histological evaluation, we postulate that heat-induced damage can be divided into four degrees of severity (0-3): Grade 0: no damage; no devascularization, no heat-induced damage. Grade 1: The heat damaged zone is cut away during subsequent reaming, the only damage is devascularization. Grade 2: The damaged zones are not eliminated by subsequent reaming. The bone is devascularized and heat damaged. Grade 3: The entire cross section of the bone including the periosteum is devitalized by exposure to excessive heat. Depending on the severity of additional damage to the soft tissues, grave consequences are to be expected and further operations are unavoidable. The effects of heat-induced damage are particularly critical in the presence of infection (cases 2 and 3). The fundamental aspects and the extent of heat necrosis will be discussed. After discussion with the AO Technical Commission on the cause of heat-induced necrosis, we would recommend the following preventive measures: 1. preoperative measurement of the smallest diameter of the medullary cavity in two planes. 2. reaming with the standard instrumentation (9 mm) only if the medullary cavity has a diameter of at least 8 mm at its narrowest point. 3. Extremely narrow cavities should first be reamed manually or an alternative to nailing should be sought. 4. It is strongly recommended that only sharp reamers be used in such cases and blunt or damaged reamers replaced. ( info)
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