Cases reported "Huntington Disease"

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1/305. Differential clinical and motor control function in a pair of monozygotic twins with Huntington's disease.

    We report a pair of monozygotic Huntington's disease (HD) twins who, although sharing identical CAG repeat lengths, not only present with marked differences in clinical symptoms but also behavioral abilities as measured by our experimental procedures. Both HD twins and two healthy control subjects were tested twice over 2 years. Patient A was generally more impaired at a motor level, whereas Patient B showed greater attentional impairment; Patient B, however, showed more progressive deterioration. The control subjects' performance remained consistent over the 2-year interval. Patient A clinically had the more hyperkinetic hypotonic variant of the disease, whereas Patient B, who was the more impaired, presented with a more hypokinetic hypertonic (rigid) variant. The influences of epigenetic pre- and postnatal environmental factors should not be ignored. ( info)

2/305. A European pilot quality assessment scheme for molecular diagnosis of Huntington's disease.

    This paper reports a European pilot External Quality Assessment (EQA) scheme for the molecular diagnosis of Huntington's disease (HD). The European Molecular genetics Quality Network (EMQN) chose HD as a relatively simple assay that allows a range of difficulty in terms of technical competence and interpretation. Fourteen centres from 12 different countries participated. The scheme organiser provided five cases together with mock clinical information. The participating laboratories were asked to complete the analyses and return the reports in English to their normal laboratory format within a fixed period. The scheme demonstrates a level of potential misdiagnosis in molecular analysis of HD as well as a wide variety in way of reporting laboratory results. overall 9/146 (6.2%) of alleles fell outside the set limits, and the rate of misdiagnosis was 1/78 (1.3%). A closer estimate of diagnostic accuracy will require expansion of the scheme. ( info)

3/305. multimodal imaging of residual function and compensatory resource allocation in cortical atrophy: a case study of parietal lobe function in a patient with Huntington's disease.

    In a case of Huntington's disease (HD) with dementia and pronounced parieto-frontal atrophy, the functional state of the affected regions was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). It was observed that although parietal areas showed extensive atrophy and reduced resting glucose metabolism, the patient performed with similar accuracy but with longer response time in a visuospatial task compared with healthy control subjects. At the same time, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal in these areas, which are involved in visuospatial processing, showed a similar task-dependent modulation as in control subjects. The signal amplitude (signal percent change) of the task-dependent activation was even higher for the HD patient than in the control group. This residual functionality of parietal areas involved in visuospatial processing could account for the patient's performance in the task concerned, which contrasted with his poor performance in other cognitive tasks. The increased percent-signal change suggests that a higher neuronal effort was necessary to reach a similar degree of accuracy as in control subjects, fitting well with the longer reaction time. We propose that fMRI should be considered as a tool for the assessment of functionality of morphologically abnormal cortex and for the investigation of compensatory resource allocation in neurodegenerative disorders. ( info)

4/305. Huntington's disease and alcohol abuse.

    The dopamine, glutamate and GABA systems are known to mediate the effects of alcohol on the movement disorders, though their exact roles are not clear. Thus, use of alcohol has implications for pathogenesis as well as management of the movement disorders. These implications are discussed citing a patient who had a strong family history of Huntington's disease and in whom movement disorder and behavioral problems were manifest under alcohol use and withdrawal, but not while being abstinent. ( info)

5/305. A non-familial Huntington's disease patient with grumose degeneration in the dentate nucleus.

    We report a non-familial Huntington's disease (HD) patient presenting with increased levels of protein and IgG in his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), antineuronal antibody in his serum and CSF, Purkinje cell and granule cell degeneration in the cerebellum, and grumose degeneration in the dentate nucleus, in addition to typical HD findings. This patient showed an expanded CAG repeat in the HD gene, and provides new information on the clinical and neuropathologic varieties of HD. ( info)

6/305. A non-typical neuropsychological case presentation of Huntington's disease.

    The documentation of Huntington's disease as an autosomal-dominant disorder can be traced to the late 19th century, the first recorded cases as far back as the early 1600s. However, only recently have the neuropsychological correlates of the condition begun to be examined. Contemporary investigators have documented general findings of Huntington's disease on a variety of cognitive and neuropsychological instruments with the presentation of the disorder generally being consistent from case to case. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the neuropsychological findings of Huntington's disease. Published research documenting functional impairments will be reviewed. A case will then be presented illustrating a somewhat non-typical neuropsychological presentation of the disorder. ( info)

7/305. neuroacanthocytosis masquerading as Huntington's disease: CT/MRI findings.

    neuroacanthocytosis (NA) is a rare, degenerative, presumably autosomal-recessive disorder of the nervous system presenting in adulthood and is associated with acanthocytosis of the peripheral blood. The clinical spectrum of NA shares similarities with Huntington's disease (HD), including dyskinetic choreiform movements and degeneration of the caudate nucleus. A woman presented with choreiform movements and was given a presumed diagnosis of HD. neuroimaging studies were consistent with HD. She lacked the genetic marker for HD, and further evaluation revealed acanthocytosis of the peripheral blood. The case illustrates the similarities and differences in the clinical presentations and neuroimaging studies of these two disease entities, emphasizing the need for a careful clinical evaluation. ( info)

8/305. Huntington's disease: review and anesthetic case management.

    Huntington's disease is a dominantly inherited progressive autosomal disease that affects the basal ganglia. Symptoms appear later in life and manifest as progressive mental deterioration and involuntary choreiform movements. patients with Huntington's disease develop a progressive but variable dementia. Dysphagia, the most significant related motor symptom, hinders nutrition intake and places the patient at risk for aspiration. The combination of involuntary choreoathetoid movements, depression, and apathy leads to cachexia. Factors of considerable concern to the anesthesiologist who treats patients with Huntington's disease may include how to treat frail elderly people incapable of cooperation, how to treat patients suffering from malnourishment, and how to treat patients with an increased risk for aspiration or exaggerated responses to sodium thiopental and succinylcholine. The successful anesthetic management of a 65-yr-old woman with Huntington's disease who presented for full-mouth extractions is described. ( info)

9/305. Dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy in a spanish family: a clinical, radiological, pathological, and genetic study.

    The object was to describe the clinical, radiological, pathological, and genetic findings in a Spanish family with dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). This is an inherited neurodegenerative disease, well recognised in japan, but with few cases reported from europe and America and no cases published from spain. The clinical misdiagnosis of Huntington's disease is not infrequent. pedigree analysis and clinical data of a family were collected. A genetic study was performed in two patients. Pathological information was obtained from the necropsy of one patient. RESULTS: pedigree analysis showed an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Age at onset varied from 5 to 55 years. ataxia and chorea were present in most of the members. Some of these had a long course disease with late dementia. Four patients had seizures and early mental impairment. In one patient, cranial MRI showed cortical, brain stem and cerebellar atrophy, and white matter changes. In another patient, necropsy showed atrophy of the globus pallidus and lipofuscin deposits in dentate and pallidal neuronal cells. Genetic study showed an abnormal CAG triplet expansion in the B37 gene on chromosome 12. As in other cases previously reported, Spanish cases of DRPLA show intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity. Clinical and MRI data could differentiate DRPLA from Huntington's disease but definitive diagnosis requires molecular studies. Pathological studies are still necessary to correlate DRPLA brain involvement with the clinical and molecular findings. ( info)

10/305. Anaesthesia and juvenile Huntington's disease.

    Juvenile Huntington's disease (JHD) is an involuntary movement disorder that comprises both neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Whilst it has many similarities to Huntington's disease, it is regarded as a separate clinical entity. The anaesthetic plan should be based on careful assessment of the important issues, including the risk of regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration, possible associated autonomic neuropathy, poor respiratory function and the avoidance of precipitating convulsions and clonic spasms. We describe the management of a 12-year-old girl with JHD scheduled for gastroscopy under general anaesthesia necessitating the use of suxamethonium. We suggest an alternative mechanism for the delayed recovery seen in our patient and in other adult case reports. ( info)
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