Cases reported "Hydrocephalus"

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1/240. Endoscopic removal of a third ventricular cysticercal cyst.

    We report the case of a young man who presented with acute obstructive hydrocephalus previously treated with bilateral ventriculo-peritoneal shunts. Previous magnetic resonance imaging studies were consistent with aqueduct stenosis; no intraventricular pathology was identified. neuroendoscopy was performed in order the third ventricle and perform a third ventriculostomy. This revealed a cysticercal lesion of the third ventricle which was removed endoscopically. In addition, a third ventriculostomy was performed and both shunt systems removed. Following a course of albendazole the patient went on to make a full recovery, and currently remains shunt independent.
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keywords = aqueduct
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2/240. Persistent bilateral hearing loss after shunt placement for hydrocephalus. Case report.

    Transient hearing decrease following loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported in patients undergoing lumbar puncture, spinal anesthesia, myelography, and/or different neurosurgical interventions. The authors present the first well-documented case of a patient with persistent bilateral low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss after shunt placement for hydrocephalus and discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms including the role of the cochlear aqueduct. These findings challenge the opinion that hearing decreases after loss of CSF are always transient. The authors provide a suggestion for treatment.
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keywords = aqueduct
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3/240. siblings with a syndrome of hydrocephalus with patent aqueduct, growth retardation and associated anomalies.

    We report on male siblings with hydrocephalus with associated abnormalities including growth retardation, midline cleft palate and bilateral 'fisting' of the hands, providing evidence for a familial syndrome of hydrocephalus and associated anomalies.
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ranking = 4
keywords = aqueduct
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4/240. Globular glioma of the tectum.

    Brainstem gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors whose prognosis and treatment depend not only on the histologic features but also on the location within the brainstem. magnetic resonance imaging allows the recognition of a distinct type of brainstem glioma of the tectal region of the midbrain, leading to aqueductal compression and hydrocephalus. The radiologic appearance of these tumors is usually rather uniform, with a characteristic nonenhancing thickening of the tectal plate. Because of its protracted course, no further treatment is necessary beyond cerebrospinal fluid diversion and close clinicoradiologic follow-up. The authors report two children with tectal plate gliomas of unusual but strikingly similar appearance. They present a clinical picture suggestive of intracranial hypertension without localizing signs. Magnetic resonance images reveal hydrocephalus related to the presence of perfectly circular lesions, hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2, which could be mistaken for parasitic cysts or represent dilated rostral portions of the sylvian aqueduct. After the cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures, no further treatment was given, with one of the patients being monitored for 10 years and the other for 8 months, without tumor progression. These patients demonstrate that tectal gliomas, despite sharing a good prognosis, may have various patterns of growth, leading to unusual radiologic appearances that may pose diagnostic difficulties.
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ranking = 2
keywords = aqueduct
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5/240. Bilateral sensorineural deafness, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and arachnoid cysts in two sisters.

    We describe two sisters (ages 10 and 3 years, respectively) with a normal development and a combination of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, arachnoid cyst, and hydrocephalus. Neither girl has distinctive physical anomalies. In the oldest girl, there was a hearing loss of 80 dB bilaterally, and the most severe loss on audiogram was seen at 2,000-4,000 Hz. In the youngest girl, there was a hearing loss of 100 dB bilaterally. Above 2,000 Hz no neural reactions were seen. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in one girl and computed tomography in the other showed a partial agenesis of the corpus callosum and a cyst in the pineal region, causing an aqueduct stenosis by compression and consequent hydrocephalus. The parents have normal hearing, and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. They are nonconsanguineous but from the same small village. This is the first report of a combination of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and an arachnoid cyst. The pattern of inheritance is probably autosomal recessive.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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6/240. Failure of open third ventriculostomy for shunt infections in infants.

    Open third ventriculostomy (OTV) was performed on 4 infants with noncommunicating hydrocephalus and intractable shunt infections. All patients were resistant or relapsed after treatment with intravenous and intraventricular antibiotics along with change of the shunt apparatus. We performed phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow at the aqueduct of Sylvius. All patients required a second OTV approximately 3 weeks after the first OTV due to closure of the patency. Our experience led us to view OTV as an unsuccessful procedure in infantile noncommunicating hydrocephalus due to an insufficiently developed subarachnoid space. The patients' data, operative findings and probable causes of failure are presented here.
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keywords = aqueduct
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7/240. Expanding lacunae causing triventricular hydrocephalus. Report of two cases.

    Two patients are reported in whom the presence of triventricular hydrocephalus and aqueductal obstruction or stenosis due to multiple expanding lacunae in the mesencephalothalamic region possibly corresponds to abnormally dilated perivascular spaces. Placement of a ventriculoperitoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt in one patient and the performance of a third ventricle cisternotomy in the other reversed the hydrocephalic syndrome, but did not modify the complex neuroophthalmological disturbance and rubral tremor presumably related to the compressive effects of the lacunae on adjacent parenchyma. In one patient the number and size of the lacunae were increased 4 years after CSF shunt placement. A review of the literature revealed two cases in which magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a similar, poorly understood pathological condition.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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8/240. Autosomal recessive hydrocephalus due to congenital stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius.

    Isolated hydrocephalus due to congenital stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius is almost always an X-linked recessive inherited condition. We describe a brother and sister with isolated hydrocephalus from congenital aqueductal stenosis. We believe that these two occurrences represent a rare autosomal recessive form of this abnormality. In assessing a first known occurrence of hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius in a family, the rare possibility of autosomal inheritance must be considered in genetic counselling.
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ranking = 7
keywords = aqueduct
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9/240. dandy-walker syndrome successfully treated with cystoperitoneal shunting--case report.

    A neonate presented with dandy-walker syndrome manifesting as a large posterior cranial fossa cyst, aplasia of the lower cerebellar vermis, and elevation of the confluence of the sinuses but without hydrocephalus. A cystoperitoneal shunt was placed at one month after birth. The cyst diminished in size, and marked development of the cerebellar hemispheres and descent of the confluence of sinuses were observed, but not vermis development. The primary pathology of dandy-walker syndrome is posterior cranial fossa cyst formation due to passage obstruction in the fourth ventricle exit area and aplasia of the lower cerebellar vermis. The first choice of treatment in patients with dandy-walker syndrome in whom the cerebral aqueduct is open is cystoperitoneal shunt surgery, regardless of the presence or absence of hydrocephalus.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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10/240. subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a case of aqueductal stenosis.

    A 14-year-old boy presented with history of deterioration of scholastic performance, altered behaviour, difficulty in walking and repeated falls since last 2-3 months. He had history of delayed milestones and at 11 months developed febrile rashes. On investigations, MRI showed compensated hydrocephalus with aqueductal stenosis. EEG suggested subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). CSF was positive for measles antibody titre. This case of aqueductal stenosis with SSPE is very interesting for its diagnostic dilemma.
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ranking = 6
keywords = aqueduct
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