Cases reported "Hydrocephalus"

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1/698. craniopharyngioma of the pineal region.

    Craniopharyngiomas generally develop either in the suprasellar region or in both suprasellar and intrasellar regions. We report on a nontypical location of the craniopharyngioma in the pineal region. An 8-year-old boy was admitted to the department of pediatric neurosurgery in a grave condition. An MRI scan of the brain was performed after the neurological examination and revealed a large neoplasm situated in the posterior part of the III ventricle and in the pineal region, measuring 8.5x6.5x5 cm. The size of the tumor and its location meant it was occluding three ventricles, with subsequent hydrocephaly. Total removal of the tumor was carried out. Microscopic investigation of the tissue removed showed the typical structure characteristic for craniopharyngioma of the adamantinomatous type. Results of a consultation 6 months after the operation revealed that the patient was feeling well, attending school regularly and had finished the first semester with excellent results. On control MRI scan no tumor was found.
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2/698. Anatomical and embryological considerations in the repair of a large vertex cephalocele. Case report.

    The case of a neonate with a large vertex cephalocele is presented. The anatomical features of this anomaly were evaluated by means of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Fusion of the thalami, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and failure of adequate formation of the interhemispheric fissure were characteristics of the major cerebral anomalies associated with the cephalocele. The absence of a falx in the midline, a split configuration of the superior sagittal sinus, and a dysgenetic tentorium with a concomitant abnormal venous drainage pattern were found in association with a large dorsal cyst. Repair of the anomaly was undertaken on the 3rd postnatal day. A cerebrospinal fluid shunt was required to treat hydrocephalus on Day 30. The child is well at age 3 years, but with significant developmental delay. The pathogenesis of this vertex cephalocele relates to semilobar holoprosencephaly and dorsal cyst formation. In addition, a disturbance in the separation of the diencephalic portion of the neural tube from the surface ectoderm or skin during the final phases of neurulation had occurred to help create the large cephalocele. Detailed preoperative imaging studies and awareness of the embryology and anatomy of this lesion facilitated the repair of the cephalocele. The prognosis of the child is determined not only by the presence of hydrocephalus, but also by the number of associated major cerebral anomalies. Options for treatment are discussed.
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ranking = 0.032389208318663
keywords = cerebral
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3/698. Endoscopic removal of a third ventricular cysticercal cyst.

    We report the case of a young man who presented with acute obstructive hydrocephalus previously treated with bilateral ventriculo-peritoneal shunts. Previous magnetic resonance imaging studies were consistent with aqueduct stenosis; no intraventricular pathology was identified. neuroendoscopy was performed in order the third ventricle and perform a third ventriculostomy. This revealed a cysticercal lesion of the third ventricle which was removed endoscopically. In addition, a third ventriculostomy was performed and both shunt systems removed. Following a course of albendazole the patient went on to make a full recovery, and currently remains shunt independent.
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4/698. choroid plexus papilloma. I. Proof of cerebrospinal fluid overproduction.

    Utilizing a ventricular perfusion technique, the rate of CSF formation was determined in a 2-year-old child before and after removal of a 74 g choroid plexus papilloma from the left lateral ventricle. Preoperatively, the CSF formation rate was 1.05 /- SD 0.01 ml/min (1,656 ml/day). Postoperatively, the CSF formation rate was reduced fivefold to 0.20 /- SD 0.01 ml/min (288 ml/day). Whereas these data are regarded as conclusive evidence of CSF overproduction by a choroid plexus papilloma, the pathogenesis of generalized ventricular enlargement in this case was due to part to obstruction of the subarachnoid pathways.
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5/698. Development of a middle fossa arachnoid cyst. A theory on its pathogenesis.

    The progression of congenital arachnoid cysts has seldom been documented. We report the case of a child who was diagnosed with arrested hydrocephalus at the age of 13 months. neuroimaging studies performed when the girl was 22 months old showed the appearance of an arachnoid cyst in the right middle fossa, while the previously enlarged ventricles seemed to have decreased in size. To the best of our knowledge, the paradoxical expansion of an arachnoid pouch following a reduction in the size of the ventricular system has not previously been documented. We advance the hypothesis that the development of some cases of arachnoid cyst might be pathogenically related to impaired CSF dynamics associated with pre-existing hydrocephalus. We also briefly review the pertinent literature on the formation and evolution of congenital cerebral arachnoid cysts.
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ranking = 0.51619460415933
keywords = ventricle, cerebral
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6/698. Endoscopic ventriculocystocisternostomy of a quadrigeminal cistern arachnoid cyst. Case report.

    The authors present the case of an elderly patient with a quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst who was successfully treated with endoscopic fenestration through the posterior wall of the third ventricle via the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. This 71-year-old man suffered from progressive gait instability and disorientation. Radiological examination revealed hydrocephalus caused by a quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst. The patient underwent endoscopic fenestration of the quadrigeminal cistern arachnoid cyst and third ventriculostomy via one burr hole placed at the coronal suture. This method is less invasive and is effective for quadrigeminal cistern arachnoid cyst and accompanying hydrocephalus.
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7/698. Low-pressure shunt 'malfunction' following lumbar puncture in children with shunted obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Most shunt malfunctions present with signs and symptoms of high intracranial pressure, and computed tomography scans demonstrate ventricular enlargement. However, several authors have described a rare 'low-pressure' hydrocephalic state in which ventricular enlargement can occur in the face of low, or even negative, intracranial pressures. We report 2 children with obstructive hydrocephalus in whom this 'low-pressure state' followed a lumbar puncture; in both children, the shunts were functioning properly despite increased ventricular size on computed tomography scans, and all symptoms resolved (and the ventricles returned to baseline) following a period of enforced recumbency without shunt revision. We hypothesize that subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the puncture site in the lumbar theca decreases the intracranial pressures globally to a point below the opening pressures of the shunt valves. The ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, unable to be drained through either the subarachnoid space or the shunt, accumulates within the ventricular system under low pressure. One consistent feature in our 2 patients has been the postural nature of the headaches. We recommend enforced recumbency and, if necessary, a blood patch to seal the lumbar leakage. Shunt revision or prolonged external ventricular drainage appears to be unnecessary in these patients. Finally, neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication.
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8/698. Joubert's syndrome and prenatal hydrocephalus.

    Joubert's syndrome is an autosomal-recessive condition characterized by dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis, hypotonia, developmental delay, a respiratory pattern of alternating tachypnea and apnea, and abnormal eye movements. Radiologic findings include a midline cerebellar cleft in place of the vermis and a characteristic shape of the fourth ventricle. Prenatal hydrocephalus has been proposed as a possible etiology for the cerebellar abnormalities but has not previously been described in association with this syndrome. The authors report a patient with clinical and radiographic features consistent with Joubert's syndrome who presented with congenital hydrocephalus.
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9/698. Indications for shunt insertion or III ventriculostomy in hydrocephalic children, guided by lumbar and intraventricular infusion tests.

    The best therapeutic management for infantile hydrocephalus is not always obvious. Traditionally, shunt insertion has been performed when CSF dynamics have been considered abnormal. However, in cases of noncommunicating hydrocephalus endoscopic III ventriculostomy (ETV) has become a well-established treatment modality, but despite clinical and radiological information clinical improvement is not obtained in all cases. A reliable preoperative investigative procedure helping to select hydrocephalic children for ETV, shunt insertion or no operation, is urgently needed. We report three cases of infantile hydrocephalus, in which our operative management was guided by the results of cerebrospinal (CSF) infusion tests. With a lumbar infusion test we assessed the CSF resorption capacity, and thus whether shunting was indicated. Comparing the results with those of an intraventricular infusion test, we assessed the presence of any structural blockage of the CSF circulation between the ventricles and the subarachnoid compartment, which would indicate a possible effect of an ETV. Performance of both a lumbar infusion test and a subsequent intraventricular infusion test in hydrocephalic children seems to provide valuable information for the decision-making on surgery.
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10/698. Ruptured distal anterior choroidal artery aneurysm presenting with casting intraventricular haemorrhage.

    This report describes a rare case of a distal anterior choroidal artery aneurysm which developed intraventricular haemorrhage without subarachnoid haemorrhage as shown on computerized tomographic (CT) scan. A 69-year-old hypertensive man suddenly became unconscious. An emergency CT scan showed a severe intraventricular haemorrhage and a small round low-dense lesion within the haematoma at the right trigone. The haematoma with obstructive hydrocephalus made the lateral ventricles larger on the right than on the left. CT scan could not detect any subarachnoid haemorrhage. Right interal carotid angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm at the plexal point of the right anterior choroidal artery. We approached the aneurysm and the small round lesion through the trigone via a right temporo-occipital corticotomy. We could clip the aneurysmal neck and remove the intraventricular haematoma and the papillary cystic mass (corresponding to the small round lesion on CT scan) totally in one sitting. Histological examination revealed the aneurysm to be a true one and the papillary cystic mass to be a choroid plexus cyst.
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