Cases reported "Hydrocephalus"

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1/227. Anatomical and embryological considerations in the repair of a large vertex cephalocele. Case report.

    The case of a neonate with a large vertex cephalocele is presented. The anatomical features of this anomaly were evaluated by means of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Fusion of the thalami, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and failure of adequate formation of the interhemispheric fissure were characteristics of the major cerebral anomalies associated with the cephalocele. The absence of a falx in the midline, a split configuration of the superior sagittal sinus, and a dysgenetic tentorium with a concomitant abnormal venous drainage pattern were found in association with a large dorsal cyst. Repair of the anomaly was undertaken on the 3rd postnatal day. A cerebrospinal fluid shunt was required to treat hydrocephalus on Day 30. The child is well at age 3 years, but with significant developmental delay. The pathogenesis of this vertex cephalocele relates to semilobar holoprosencephaly and dorsal cyst formation. In addition, a disturbance in the separation of the diencephalic portion of the neural tube from the surface ectoderm or skin during the final phases of neurulation had occurred to help create the large cephalocele. Detailed preoperative imaging studies and awareness of the embryology and anatomy of this lesion facilitated the repair of the cephalocele. The prognosis of the child is determined not only by the presence of hydrocephalus, but also by the number of associated major cerebral anomalies. Options for treatment are discussed.
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2/227. A case of cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia associated with shunt malfunction.

    A 3-month-old female patient presented with a meningomyelocele at the lumber region associated with congenital hydrocephalus. She underwent ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt surgery using the Sophy system. The shunt system was replaced due to a malformation. Following replacement, the patient presented with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia at the age of 8 months. The eosinophilic granulocytosis of the CSF improved dramatically following systemic prednisolone administration. CSF eosinophilia without accompanying inflammation or pyrexia in the present case may have resulted from an allergic response to a foreign material such as the silicone tube pressure valve of the Sophy system or the sutures rather than bacterial or fungal infection. Based on our results, we believe that some patients may experience CSF eosinophilia following postoperative V-P shunt due to an allergic reaction to the shunt equipment. Prompt steroid treatment can produce spontaneous regression in such cases.
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3/227. December 1998--16 year old female with headaches, lethargy and a sellar/suprasellar mass.

    A 16 year female with a history of developmental delay and shunted hydrocephalus presented with two months of progressive headaches, lethargy and visual disturbances. An MRI of the brain revealed a sellar and suprasellar cystic mass which was absent on a previous MRI six years earlier. The pre-operative clinical diagnosis was pituitary adenoma vs. craniopharyngioma. Histologically, the fibrous wall of the ciliated epithelial-lined cyst was thickened by non-caseating granulomatous inflammation, hemorrhage, hemosiderin, and cholesterol clefts, consistent with cyst rupture. Rathke's cleft cysts are uncommon symptomatic lesions in young people, and must be distinguished from craniopharyngioma.
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4/227. choroid plexus papilloma. I. Proof of cerebrospinal fluid overproduction.

    Utilizing a ventricular perfusion technique, the rate of CSF formation was determined in a 2-year-old child before and after removal of a 74 g choroid plexus papilloma from the left lateral ventricle. Preoperatively, the CSF formation rate was 1.05 /- SD 0.01 ml/min (1,656 ml/day). Postoperatively, the CSF formation rate was reduced fivefold to 0.20 /- SD 0.01 ml/min (288 ml/day). Whereas these data are regarded as conclusive evidence of CSF overproduction by a choroid plexus papilloma, the pathogenesis of generalized ventricular enlargement in this case was due to part to obstruction of the subarachnoid pathways.
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5/227. Neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy in the management of fourth ventricular outlet obstruction.

    Acquired fourth ventricular outlet obstruction, an uncommon entity, has been conventionally managed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt placements or excision of the obstructing membranes. The role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy is highlighted in the present communication. Three patients presenting with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure were diagnosed to have fourth ventricular outlet obstruction by neuroimaging studies and underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy. All the patients had relief of their symptoms in the postoperative period. neuroimaging studies performed at follow-up revealed decrease in ventricular size in all. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a useful alternative in the management of acquired fourth ventricular outlet obstruction.
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6/227. spinal cord hamartoma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: spinal cord hamartomas are infrequently mentioned in the literature. The authors present a unique report detailing the clinical presentation of a spinal cord hamartoma, with supporting radiographic and pathological data. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old man presented with progressive right upper extremity weakness. Imaging studies revealed an exophytic cervical spinal cord mass. INTERVENTION: Open biopsy was undertaken and revealed tethering of the lesion to the dura. A pathological examination revealed a spinal cord hamartoma. CONCLUSION: The patient's symptoms improved postoperatively, suggesting that tethering of the spinal cord was responsible for the symptoms. Although unusual, hamartoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of an exophytic spinal cord lesion.
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7/227. Indications for shunt insertion or III ventriculostomy in hydrocephalic children, guided by lumbar and intraventricular infusion tests.

    The best therapeutic management for infantile hydrocephalus is not always obvious. Traditionally, shunt insertion has been performed when CSF dynamics have been considered abnormal. However, in cases of noncommunicating hydrocephalus endoscopic III ventriculostomy (ETV) has become a well-established treatment modality, but despite clinical and radiological information clinical improvement is not obtained in all cases. A reliable preoperative investigative procedure helping to select hydrocephalic children for ETV, shunt insertion or no operation, is urgently needed. We report three cases of infantile hydrocephalus, in which our operative management was guided by the results of cerebrospinal (CSF) infusion tests. With a lumbar infusion test we assessed the CSF resorption capacity, and thus whether shunting was indicated. Comparing the results with those of an intraventricular infusion test, we assessed the presence of any structural blockage of the CSF circulation between the ventricles and the subarachnoid compartment, which would indicate a possible effect of an ETV. Performance of both a lumbar infusion test and a subsequent intraventricular infusion test in hydrocephalic children seems to provide valuable information for the decision-making on surgery.
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8/227. Reduction cranioplasty for macrocephaly. Two case reports.

    Multi-stage reduction cranioplasty was performed on two children with severe macrocephaly secondary to hydrocephalus. One patient underwent a four-stage operation, and the other underwent a two-stage operation. The postoperative course of both patients was uneventful. Reduction cranioplasty improved quality of life for both patients, and good cosmetic results were achieved. Reduction cranioplasty is effective for the treatment of macrocephaly, and multi-stage surgery can reduce the associated risks.
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9/227. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Case report.

    In recent years, endoscopic third ventriculostomy has become a well-established procedure for the treatment of various forms of noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is considered to be an easy and safe procedure. Complications have rarely been reported in the literature. The authors present a case in which the patient suffered a fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. This 63-year-old man presented with confusion and drowsiness and was admitted in to the hospital in poor general condition. Computerized tomography scanning revealed an obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a tumor located in the cerebellopontine angle. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed with the aid of a Fogarty balloon catheter. Some hours postoperatively, the patient became comatose. Computerized tomography scanning revealed a severe perimesencephalic-peripontine SAH and progressive hydrocephalus. Despite emergency external ventricular drainage, the patient died a few hours later. Although endoscopic third ventriculostomy is considered to be a simple and safe procedure, one should be aware that severe and sometimes fatal complications may occur. To avoid vascular injury, perforation of the floor of the third ventricle should be performed in the midline, halfway between the infundibular recess and the mammillary bodies, just behind the dorsum sellae.
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10/227. Pneumoencephalus and convulsions after ventriculoscopy: a potentially catastrophic complication.

    A nine-year-old boy with hydrocephalus underwent ventriculoscopy under general anesthesia. After introduction of ventriculoscope the patient had sudden bradycardia, hypotension, and shrinkage of ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. The ventriculostomy was abandoned. At the end of anesthesia and endotracheal extubation, the patient developed generalized convulsions. Reexploration of wound did not reveal anything significant; however, postoperative CT scan of head showed massive pneumoencephalus. The patients received elective ventilation of lungs for 24 hours and made complete recovery. The authors describe the reasons for these complications and further management.
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