Cases reported "Hydrocephalus"

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1/47. Persistent bilateral hearing loss after shunt placement for hydrocephalus. Case report.

    Transient hearing decrease following loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported in patients undergoing lumbar puncture, spinal anesthesia, myelography, and/or different neurosurgical interventions. The authors present the first well-documented case of a patient with persistent bilateral low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss after shunt placement for hydrocephalus and discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms including the role of the cochlear aqueduct. These findings challenge the opinion that hearing decreases after loss of CSF are always transient. The authors provide a suggestion for treatment.
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2/47. Low-pressure shunt 'malfunction' following lumbar puncture in children with shunted obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Most shunt malfunctions present with signs and symptoms of high intracranial pressure, and computed tomography scans demonstrate ventricular enlargement. However, several authors have described a rare 'low-pressure' hydrocephalic state in which ventricular enlargement can occur in the face of low, or even negative, intracranial pressures. We report 2 children with obstructive hydrocephalus in whom this 'low-pressure state' followed a lumbar puncture; in both children, the shunts were functioning properly despite increased ventricular size on computed tomography scans, and all symptoms resolved (and the ventricles returned to baseline) following a period of enforced recumbency without shunt revision. We hypothesize that subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the puncture site in the lumbar theca decreases the intracranial pressures globally to a point below the opening pressures of the shunt valves. The ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, unable to be drained through either the subarachnoid space or the shunt, accumulates within the ventricular system under low pressure. One consistent feature in our 2 patients has been the postural nature of the headaches. We recommend enforced recumbency and, if necessary, a blood patch to seal the lumbar leakage. Shunt revision or prolonged external ventricular drainage appears to be unnecessary in these patients. Finally, neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication.
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3/47. Ultrasound-guided puncture of a Dandy-Walker cyst via the lateral and III ventricles.

    Since the dandy-walker syndrome was first described by Dandy and Blackfan, Taggart and Walker, the many variants of posterior fossa anomalies, the appropriate management of these malformations and the clinical outcome have been the subjects of controversy. Surgery of the posterior fossa with membrane excision was initially the preferred method of treatment. Unfortunately, there was a high rate of complications, and many of the patients treated in this way still needed a shunting system. Ventricular-peritoneal and/or cysto-peritoneal shunting is commonly used to treat symptomatic posterior fossa cysts of Dandy-Walker malformations and hydrocephalus. Cysto-peritoneal shunt implantation only was associated with a high rate of complications, and most patients so treated needed a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in addition. According to the literature, combined ventriculo-peritoneal and cysto-peritoneal shunting is needed for satisfactory decompression of Dandy-Walker cyst and hydrocephalus in between 16% and 92% of cases. We report on a young patient with a Dandy-Walker malformation who needed drainage of the posterior fossa and a ventricular shunt. We decided to drain the cyst and the supratentorial ventricles via a single, especially prepared, catheter with many perforations. The catheter was inserted under ultrasound guidance. The tube was inserted from the left lateral ventricle through the foramen of Monro into the III ventricle and downwards into the cyst. Intraoperatively, an immediate decrease in the size of the cyst and the supratentorial ventricles was observed. Postoperative MRI confirmed the exact position of the catheter and sufficient drainage of the posterior fossa cyst and the ventricles. Six months later the girl was seen in our outpatient department. Clinical examination showed no neurological deficit, and MRI demonstrated sufficient drainage of the ventricles and the Dandy-Walker malformation, and in addition hypoplasia of the corpus callosum.
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4/47. Unilateral posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus in the neonatal period or later in infancy.

    Five infants who developed unilateral hydrocephalus associated with antenatal or perinatal intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in the neonatal period or later in infancy are reported. Unilateral hydrocephalus occurred following discharge home in four of our five cases, two of whom had been treated during the neonatal period with either serial lumbar punctures or punctures from a Rickham reservoir. An obstruction at the level of the foramen of Monro following a large subependymal matrix bleed appeared to be the underlying aetiology. These data suggest that infants who suffer a predominantly unilateral IVH, with or without parenchymal involvement, can subsequently develop unilateral hydrocephalus. Cranial ultrasound examinations should be repeated at regular intervals during the first year of life, as unilateral hydrocephalus can still develop after a period of apparent stabilization.
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5/47. hydrocephalus in coccidioidal meningitis: case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: coccidioidomycosis was once confined to the southwest united states and northern mexico. It has become a larger concern because of the concentration of military bases in these areas, the increasing mobility of populations, and the rising population of immunocompromised persons. Outside endemic areas, the diagnosis is rarely considered. patients with coccidioidomycosis may develop occult basilar meningitis progressing to communicating hydrocephalus and death. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old white man presented with a 1-month history of vertigo, falls, and vomiting. Computed tomography of the head revealed mild hydrocephalus. Lumbar puncture results were remarkable for 1065 mg/dl protein; acid-fast bacillus stain, Gram's stain, and culture results were negative. Postgadolinium magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated enhancement of basilar and cervical meninges, suggesting inflammation, and communicating hydrocephalus. For 48 hours, the patient's level of consciousness decreased progressively. INTERVENTION: A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed, and antifungal agents were initiated on an emergent basis. CONCLUSION: coccidioidomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of occult basilar meningitis. The diagnosis is established by the discovery of a high (>1:2) titer of complement-fixing antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid. Communicating hydrocephalus is a common complication of untreated coccidioidal meningitis, and it may develop during appropriate treatment (oral fluconazole, 200-400 mg/d, continued indefinitely). patients with hydrocephalus and evidence of increased intracranial pressure require a shunt.
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6/47. Lumboperitoneal shunting as a treatment for slit ventricle syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: slit ventricle syndrome (SVS) has been described in hydrocephalus patients who continue to have shunt malfunction-like symptoms in the presence of a functioning shunt system and small ventricles on imaging studies. These symptoms usually present years after shunt placement or revision and can consist of headache, nausea and vomiting, lethargy and decreased cognitive skills. Treatments offered range from observation, medical therapy (migraine treatment) and shunt revision to subtemporal decompression or cranial vault expansion. We describe a subset of patients with SVS who were symptomatic with high intracranial pressure (ICP) as measured by sedated lumbar puncture and whose symptoms completely resolved after lumboperitoneal shunt (LPS) placement. methods: Seven patients with a diagnosis of SVS underwent lumboperitoneal shunting. The age at shunting ranged from 3 to 18 years. Most had undergone recent ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) revisions for presentation of shunt malfunction-like symptoms. Despite this, all remained symptomatic and underwent a sedated lumbar puncture to measure opening pressure (OP). All had high OP in spite of a functional VPS and underwent LPS placement. RESULTS: All 7 patients had a prolonged period of overdrainage symptoms after lumboperitoneal shunting that resolved completely over several weeks. The initial etiology of hydrocephalus was reported to include trauma, aqueductal stenosis and intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity. Two patients required revision of their LPS, after which their symptoms again resolved. CONCLUSION: In a certain subset of patients with SVS who are symptomatic from increased ICP, placement of an LPS is an effective treatment option. It appears that this subgroup of patients previously treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunting behave in a fashion similar to pseudotumor cerebri patients and respond well to lumboperitoneal shunting.
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7/47. Computerized tomography correlated with CSF protein concentrations.

    The authors present a case of hydrocephalus complicated by ventriculitis in which it was possible to correlate the numerical printout of sequential computerized tomograms (CT-Scans) with cerebrospinal fluid protein concentrations obtained by direct ventricular puncture. Different protein levels were unambiguously associated with changes in the absorption numbers on the scan but they did not bear a simple linear relationship to one another. The value of the numerical printout in diagnosis and follow-up is discussed.
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8/47. Long-term survival following treatment of multiple supra- and infratentorial aspergillus brain abscesses.

    aspergillus brain abscess is a rare but frequently fatal disease. Despite the scarcity of reported survivors, a combination of medication and surgical treatment might be effective. We report a 37-year-old man who developed multiple aspergillus brain abscesses after severe bacterial pneumonia. The following strategy was used to treat the patient: diagnostic puncture of one of the abscesses, long-term treatment with medication, excision of chronic granuloma in the occipital lobe and fourth ventricle, surgical treatment of the hydrocephalus. Following various surgical and antifungal treatments, the patient survived. Nearly three years after discharge, he still is in good physical condition and has a moderate neurologic deficit. Only 36 patients have been reported to have survived longer than three months after receiving treatment for brain aspergillosis. A course of medication in combination with various surgical procedures was required to achieve a successful outcome in this otherwise fatal disease.
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9/47. hydrocephalus due to superior sagittal sinus thrombosis.

    The great variability of clinical appearance is one of the main features of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. However, hydrocephalus associated with cerebral sinus thrombosis is rare. We report on a patient presented with thunderclap headache, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness. Lumbar puncture ruled out subarachnoid hemorrhage, whereas CT revealed marked hydrocephalus. In addition, magnetic resonance venography then confirmed the diagnosis of cerebral sinus thrombosis. It is a rare occurrence but clinically important, since it entails disastrous sequels if unrecognized, and hydrocephalus is treated in the usual fashion with ventricular drainage.
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10/47. Increased intracranial pressure in alexander disease: a rare presentation of white-matter disease.

    A patient with biopsy-proven alexander disease presented with progressive head enlargement and clinical evidence of increased intracranial pressure. Lumbar puncture under sedation confirmed increased intracranial pressure with otherwise normal cerebrospinal fluid values. The association of megalencephaly, increased intracranial pressure and neuroimaging evidence of leukoencephalopathy should alert pediatric neurologists to the possibility of alexander disease.
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