Cases reported "Hydrocephalus"

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1/191. Treatment of a symptomatic posterior fossa subdural effusion in a child.

    We describe the first observation of a child with a posterior fossa subdural effusion with secondary hydrocephalus and tonsillar herniation. We diagnosed this entity in a 14-month-old girl with no history of trauma or coagulation disorder. The patient presented in our emergency department with opisthotonus and raised intracranial pressure resulting from supratentorial hydrocephalus. An emergency ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed, which resolved the symptoms only temporarily. Eventually external drainage of the subdural fluid was performed. The collection gradually disappeared, and both the external subdural shunt and the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt were removed. The patient made a complete neurological recovery. We review the physiopathology and treatment of subdural effusions in general, and propose some guidelines for the management of symptomatic effusions occurring in the posterior fossa in particular.
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2/191. Low-pressure shunt 'malfunction' following lumbar puncture in children with shunted obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Most shunt malfunctions present with signs and symptoms of high intracranial pressure, and computed tomography scans demonstrate ventricular enlargement. However, several authors have described a rare 'low-pressure' hydrocephalic state in which ventricular enlargement can occur in the face of low, or even negative, intracranial pressures. We report 2 children with obstructive hydrocephalus in whom this 'low-pressure state' followed a lumbar puncture; in both children, the shunts were functioning properly despite increased ventricular size on computed tomography scans, and all symptoms resolved (and the ventricles returned to baseline) following a period of enforced recumbency without shunt revision. We hypothesize that subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the puncture site in the lumbar theca decreases the intracranial pressures globally to a point below the opening pressures of the shunt valves. The ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, unable to be drained through either the subarachnoid space or the shunt, accumulates within the ventricular system under low pressure. One consistent feature in our 2 patients has been the postural nature of the headaches. We recommend enforced recumbency and, if necessary, a blood patch to seal the lumbar leakage. Shunt revision or prolonged external ventricular drainage appears to be unnecessary in these patients. Finally, neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication.
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3/191. Chronic hydrocephalus and suprasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with rhinorrhea.

    Spontaneous CSF leak with rhinorrhea may be secondary to many intracranial congenital and acquired conditions. However, no cases of chronic hydrocephalus and suprasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with rhinorrhea as the unique clinical manifestation are reported in the literature. A 29-year-old-man with four-month history of episodic rhinorrhea had a large suprasellar arachnoid cyst with chronic hydrocephalus on magnetic resonance. Endoscopic ventricular fenestration of the cyst failed to obtain remission of the CSF leak, because it was not possible to fenestrate the cyst with the almost completely obliterated suprasellar cistern. Clinical remission occurred after restoration of the CSF flow from the cyst to the cisternal spaces by a direct approach. The CSF leak in this case was secondary to the chronic compression over the dural and bone structures of the sellar region by the cyst or chronic hydrocephalus.
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4/191. Failure of open third ventriculostomy for shunt infections in infants.

    Open third ventriculostomy (OTV) was performed on 4 infants with noncommunicating hydrocephalus and intractable shunt infections. All patients were resistant or relapsed after treatment with intravenous and intraventricular antibiotics along with change of the shunt apparatus. We performed phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow at the aqueduct of Sylvius. All patients required a second OTV approximately 3 weeks after the first OTV due to closure of the patency. Our experience led us to view OTV as an unsuccessful procedure in infantile noncommunicating hydrocephalus due to an insufficiently developed subarachnoid space. The patients' data, operative findings and probable causes of failure are presented here.
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5/191. Subdural empyema complicating cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection.

    Subdural empyema has not been reported previously as a complication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt surgery. An infant submitted to CSF shunt insertion for congenital hydrocephalus developed subdural empyema after a failed attempt to treat a superficial scalp wound infection with oral antibiotics. enterobacter cloacae was isolated from the empyema. Temporizing management of the preceding superficial wound infection with oral antibiotics probably was the cause of this exotic pathogen. The treatment of infected scalp wounds contiguous with shunt hardware must be surgical.
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keywords = subdural
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6/191. Expanding lacunae causing triventricular hydrocephalus. Report of two cases.

    Two patients are reported in whom the presence of triventricular hydrocephalus and aqueductal obstruction or stenosis due to multiple expanding lacunae in the mesencephalothalamic region possibly corresponds to abnormally dilated perivascular spaces. Placement of a ventriculoperitoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt in one patient and the performance of a third ventricle cisternotomy in the other reversed the hydrocephalic syndrome, but did not modify the complex neuroophthalmological disturbance and rubral tremor presumably related to the compressive effects of the lacunae on adjacent parenchyma. In one patient the number and size of the lacunae were increased 4 years after CSF shunt placement. A review of the literature revealed two cases in which magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a similar, poorly understood pathological condition.
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7/191. Spontaneous ventriculostomy: report of three cases revealed by flow-sensitive phase-contrast cine MR imaging.

    Spontaneous ventriculostomy is a rare condition that occurs with the spontaneous rupture of a ventricle, resulting in a communication between the ventricular system and the subarachnoid space. Three cases of spontaneous ventriculostomy through the floor of the third ventricle that occurred in cases of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus are presented. The communication was identified via flow-sensitive phase-contrast cine MR imaging. Spontaneous ventriculostomy is probably a result of a rupture of the normally thin membrane that forms the floor of the third ventricle and, with long-standing obstructive hydrocephalus, creates an internal drainage pathway that spontaneously compensates for the hydrocephalus.
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8/191. empty sella syndrome: does it exist in children?

    OBJECT: The empty sella syndrome (ESS) is well documented in adults, and although the same phenomenon of herniation of the arachnoid space into the enlarged sella turcica has been noted in children, it is not widely known that children suffer from this syndrome. Therefore, the aims of this paper are to increase neurosurgeons' awareness of the existence of this phenomenon in children and to add to the scant body of literature on the subject. methods: The authors treated 12 children, ranging in age between 2 and 8 years, in whom neuroradiological studies demonstrated an enlarged sella turcica filled with cerebrospinal fluid and herniation of suprasellar and arachnoid spaces. The causes of ESS in these children were high intracranial pressure, neglected or improperly treated hydrocephalus, and suprasellar arachnoid cyst. Primary ESS was found as well. Most of the children presented with headache, abnormal body weight (the majority being underweight), and short stature. The results of hormone assays were normal in all children. CONCLUSIONS: If undiagnosed and untreated, ESS in children may lead to serious consequences, including impairment of pituitary and hypothalamic function and damage to the optic chiasm. It is important to raise awareness in the neurosurgical community about the existence of ESS in children so that it can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. A classification system for the diaphragma sellae is recapitulated.
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9/191. Symptomatic calcified subdural hematomas.

    Two unique cases of chronic calcified subdural hematomas are reported in children as a long-term complication of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Both the patients had undergone shunt procedures in infancy for congenital hydrocephalus. In one patient, the cause of the hydrocephalus was aqueduct stenosis, while in the second patient, a lumbar meningomyelocele was associated with hydrocephalus. In both these patients, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was done in infancy. In one of them, following the shunt surgery, a bilateral subdural collection was noticed which required burr hole evacuation. Both the patients remained asymptomatic for 9 years, when they presented to our center with acute raised intracranial pressure and contralateral hemiparesis. Both the patients had a relatively short history and had altered sensorium at admission. Surprisingly, in both the patients, the CT scan showed significant mass effect producing calcified subdural hematomas. The shunt systems were found to be working well at surgery. craniotomy and excision of the calcified subdural hematomas was undertaken. Postoperatively, the patients showed satisfactory recovery, and at discharge the patients were doing well. At the follow-up at the outpatient clinic, the patients were asymptomatic.
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keywords = subdural
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10/191. Blake's pouch cyst: an entity within the Dandy-Walker continuum.

    Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collections within the posterior fossa are defined by the Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) and by arachnoid cysts (AC). The DWC includes the Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), the Dandy-Walker variant (DWV) and the mega-cisterna magna (MCM). In addition, Tortori-Donati et al. added persistent Blake's pouch cyst (BPC) as an independent entity within the DWC. BPC represents a posterior ballooning of the superior medullary velum into the cisterna magna. All of these malformations are overlapping developmental anomalies characterized by varying degrees of malformation of the medullary vela, the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres, the fourth ventricle choroid plexus, the posterior fossa subarachnoid cisterns and the enveloping meningeal structures. We present two cases of persistent BPC detected in two adult women without history of gestational or subsequent growth problems. They underwent neuroradiological investigation because of headache and because of recurrent episodes of loss of consciousness, respectively. The MRI findings included tetraventricular hydrocephalus, wide communication of the fourth ventricle and the cystic posterior fossa (i.e. BPC), inferior posterior fossa mass effect with or without hypoplasia of both the cerebellar vermis and the medial aspects of the cerebellar hemispheres, and absence of communication between fourth ventricle and the basal subarachnoid space in the midline posteriorly. Persistent BPC is defined by a failure of embryonic assimilation of the area membranacea anterior within the tela choroidea associated with imperforation of the foramen of Magendie. Typically this condition becomes symptomatic early in life. In the current cases the normal function of the laterally positioned foramina of Luschka probably helped to maintain some CSF flow between intraventricular and subarachnoid spaces, with the establishment of a precarious equilibrium characterized by a compensatory enlargement of the cerebral ventricular system (i.e. hydrocephalus).
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