Cases reported "hydrocephalus"

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1/2311. neurofibrillary tangles in the dementia of "normal pressure" hydrocephalus.

    Routine neuropathological examination could not explain the dramatic improvement exhibited by one patient with "normal pressure" hydrocephalus after shunting. The improved patient contrasted remarkably with the unchanged condition of four others also shunted successfully. The five brains were analysed by quantitative morphometry to determine the degree of neurofibrillary tangle formation in mesial temporal neurons. The density of tangle-bearing nerve cells in the four unimproved cases was markedly greater than in age-matched control brains from nineteen normal subjects, and fell in the same range as that of eight dements with neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease. The density of the one who recovered was within normal limits. The duration of dementia before shunting, and the total duration of dementia in these five patients rank in the same order as their degree of neurofibrillary formation. Furthermore, a positive linear correlation exists between the Tangle Indices and the total duration of dementia. The data suggest that early diagnosis may improve the chances of reversing the dementia of normal pressure hydrocephalus before histological alterations prove too severe. ( info)

2/2311. Pediatric eighth cranial nerve schwannoma without evidence of neurofibromatosis.

    Schwannomas of the eighth cranial nerve are rare in children. We report a 4 10/12 - year-old girl with no evidence of neurofibromatosis who presented with facial droop. Radiographic studies revealed a large cerebellopontine angle tumor. At surgery, the tumor was attached to the eighth cranial nerve and histologically was a schwannoma. This is the youngest reported case of unilateral eighth cranial nerve schwannoma in a patient without the stigmata of neurofibromatosis. ( info)

3/2311. Complete remission of a diffuse pontine glioma.

    A patient is described in whom a large diffuse glioma of the pons extending into the midbrain was diagnosed at the age of 2 years. biopsy showed a fibrillary astrocytoma. After shunting of a hydrocephalus, the clinical symptoms abated without conventional therapy. Repeated MRI studies showed a continuous decrease of the tumour which was no longer visible when the patient was 6.6 years old. In reviews on spontaneous remissions of oncologic disorders we were unable to find a case of a biologically benign brain stem tumour. There is one isolated report on a similar case, though without histologic documentation. ( info)

4/2311. Increased intracranial pressure associated with spinal cord tumours.

    Two cases of spinal cord tumour associated with increased intracranial pressure are reported and the 44 cases described in the literature are reviewed. The different hypotheses produced to explain the pathogenic mechanism of this syndrome are discussed. We think that several factors working together, rather than an isolated mechanism, take part in the production of this syndrome. ( info)

5/2311. Post-meningitic hydrocephalus and syringomyelia treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    Following cryptococcal meningitis, symptoms of cervical syringomyelia developed in a young heroin addict. myelography confirmed syringomyelia and angiography demonstrated severe hydrocephalus. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting resulted in complete resolution of signs and symptoms of both hydrocephalus and syringomyelia. ( info)

6/2311. craniopharyngioma of the pineal region.

    Craniopharyngiomas generally develop either in the suprasellar region or in both suprasellar and intrasellar regions. We report on a nontypical location of the craniopharyngioma in the pineal region. An 8-year-old boy was admitted to the department of pediatric neurosurgery in a grave condition. An MRI scan of the brain was performed after the neurological examination and revealed a large neoplasm situated in the posterior part of the III ventricle and in the pineal region, measuring 8.5x6.5x5 cm. The size of the tumor and its location meant it was occluding three ventricles, with subsequent hydrocephaly. Total removal of the tumor was carried out. Microscopic investigation of the tissue removed showed the typical structure characteristic for craniopharyngioma of the adamantinomatous type. Results of a consultation 6 months after the operation revealed that the patient was feeling well, attending school regularly and had finished the first semester with excellent results. On control MRI scan no tumor was found. ( info)

7/2311. Anatomical and embryological considerations in the repair of a large vertex cephalocele. Case report.

    The case of a neonate with a large vertex cephalocele is presented. The anatomical features of this anomaly were evaluated by means of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Fusion of the thalami, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and failure of adequate formation of the interhemispheric fissure were characteristics of the major cerebral anomalies associated with the cephalocele. The absence of a falx in the midline, a split configuration of the superior sagittal sinus, and a dysgenetic tentorium with a concomitant abnormal venous drainage pattern were found in association with a large dorsal cyst. Repair of the anomaly was undertaken on the 3rd postnatal day. A cerebrospinal fluid shunt was required to treat hydrocephalus on Day 30. The child is well at age 3 years, but with significant developmental delay. The pathogenesis of this vertex cephalocele relates to semilobar holoprosencephaly and dorsal cyst formation. In addition, a disturbance in the separation of the diencephalic portion of the neural tube from the surface ectoderm or skin during the final phases of neurulation had occurred to help create the large cephalocele. Detailed preoperative imaging studies and awareness of the embryology and anatomy of this lesion facilitated the repair of the cephalocele. The prognosis of the child is determined not only by the presence of hydrocephalus, but also by the number of associated major cerebral anomalies. Options for treatment are discussed. ( info)

8/2311. Delayed recurrence of cerebellar abscess 20 years after excision of dermoid cyst and sinus.

    A patient is described who suffered a greatly delayed reappearance of a cerebellar abscess, 20 years after excision, in childhood, of a midline dermoid cyst with associated abscess formation. A similar organism was cultured on both occasions. ( info)

9/2311. Failure to follow patients with hydrocephalus shunts can lead to death.

    Failure to follow patients with hydrocephalus can expose them to potentially fatal consequences. Two cases are used to illustrate this and the merits of follow-up of these patients are discussed. ( info)

10/2311. Endoscopic removal of a third ventricular cysticercal cyst.

    We report the case of a young man who presented with acute obstructive hydrocephalus previously treated with bilateral ventriculo-peritoneal shunts. Previous magnetic resonance imaging studies were consistent with aqueduct stenosis; no intraventricular pathology was identified. neuroendoscopy was performed in order the third ventricle and perform a third ventriculostomy. This revealed a cysticercal lesion of the third ventricle which was removed endoscopically. In addition, a third ventriculostomy was performed and both shunt systems removed. Following a course of albendazole the patient went on to make a full recovery, and currently remains shunt independent. ( info)
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