Cases reported "Hyperaldosteronism"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/164. Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in a pregnant woman.

    A 30-year-old pregnant woman complained of muscle weakness at 29 weeks' gestation. She was hypertensive with severe hypokalemia. Lower plasma renin activity and higher aldosterone level than the normal values in pregnancy suggested primary aldosteronism. A cesarean delivery was performed at 31 weeks' gestation because of pulmonary congestion. The neonatal course was uncomplicated. The laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a 2.0-cm right adrenal adenoma resulted in normalizing of her blood pressure and serum potassium level. Although primary aldosteronism is rare, especially during pregnancy, it should be always considered as one of etiologies of hypertension in pregnancy.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/164. ventricular fibrillation: an extreme presentation of primary hyperaldosteronism.

    patients with primary aldosteronism often present with hypokalemia and hypertension. Primary aldosteronism presenting as sudden death due to ventricular fibrillation is described in an otherwise healthy 37-year-old woman. After successful direct current cardioversion, serum potassium was 1.4 mmol/L. Investigations revealed a suppressed renin level, elevated serum aldosterone and a right adrenal nodule found on imaging. ventricular fibrillation has not previously been described as a presention of a biochemically and surgically proven aldosterone-producing adenoma. This case highlights the importance of early detection and proper diagnosis of secondary hypertension before serious sequelae occur.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/164. A case of aldosterone-producing adenoma with severe postoperative hyperkalemia.

    It is known that some patients with primary aldosteronism show postoperative hyperkalemia, which is due to inability of the adrenal gland to secrete sufficient amounts of aldosterone. However, hyperkalemia is generally neither severe nor prolonged, in which replacement therapy with mineralocorticoid is seldom necessary. We report a case of a 46-year-old woman with an aldosterone-producing adenoma associated with severe postoperative hyperkalemia. After unilateral adrenalectomy, the patient showed episodes of severe hyperkalemia for four months, which required not only cation-exchange resin, but also mineralocorticoid replacement. plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was low, although PAC was increased after rapid ACTH test. Histological examination indicated the presence of adrenocortical tumor and paradoxical hyperplasia of zona glomerulosa in the adjacent adrenal. immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the enzymes involved in aldosterone synthesis, such as cholesterol side chain cleavage (P-450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), and 21-hydroxylase (P-450c21), or the enzyme involved in glucocorticoid synthesis, 11beta-hydroxylase (P-450c11beta), were expressed in the tumor, but they were completely absent in zona glomerulosa of the adjacent adrenal. These findings were consistent with the patterns of primary aldosteronism. serum potassium level was gradually decreased with concomitant increase in PAC. These results suggest that severe postoperative hyperkalemia of the present case was attributable to severe suppression of aldosterone synthesis in the adjacent and contralateral adrenal, which resulted in slow recovery of aldosterone secretion. It is plausible that aldosterone synthesis of adjacent and contralateral adrenal glands is severely impaired in some cases with primary aldosteronism, as glucocorticoid synthesis in cushing syndrome.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/164. Primary aldosteronism caused by aldosterone-producing adenoma in pregnancy--complicated by EPH gestosis.

    pregnancy in conjunction with primary aldosteronism is an unusual occurrence. We report a 28-year-old woman who presented with mild hypertension and hypokalemia as manifestations of primary aldosteronism caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma in the left adrenal gland during pregnancy. Although the diagnosis was straightforward, the patient refused to undergo the proposed operation during the second trimester of her pregnancy. She was not admitted to hospital until she developed EPH gestosis in the 27th week of gestation, which had an unfavourable outcome for the infant who died nine days after delivery. The patient underwent a laparoscopic adrenalectomy which resulted in normalization of blood pressure and blood potassium levels. In cases of aldosterone-producing adenoma, surgery in the second trimester is the most appropriate option to avoid a poor obstetric outcome.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/164. Low doses of liquorice can induce hypertension encephalopathy.

    Prolonged ingestion of liquorice is a well-known cause of hypertension due to hypermineralocorticoidism. We describe 2 cases of hypertension encephalopathy (in addition to the classical symptoms of hypertension, hypokalemia and suppression of the renin-aldosterone system) which resulted in pseudohyperaldosteronism syndrome due to the regular daily intake of low doses of liquorice. Glycyrrhizic acid, a component of liquorice, produces both hypermineralocorticism and the onset of encephalopathy through the inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. hypertension encephalopathy due to the daily intake of low doses of liquorice, however, has not been previously documented. It is proposed that some people could be susceptible to low doses of glycyrrhizic acid because of a 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.00042076229397807
keywords = deficiency
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/164. Unmasking of primary hyperaldosteronism by renal transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism is an uncommon cause of hypertension in the general population. Given the mechanism of action of aldosterone clinical manifestations may not occur in the setting of end stage renal disease. However, if a successful renal transplant is performed clinical manifestations may occur. methods: We present a case of a patient with a preexisting adrenal adenoma who only presented with clinical signs of hyperaldosteronism after renal transplantation. patients' work-up included plasma aldosterone, plasma renin activity, serum cortisol, and estimation of trans tubular potassium gradient. RESULTS: The patient's serum aldosterone was markedly elevated with a relatively suppressed plasma renin activity. Trans tubular potassium gradient was high in the presence of hypokalemia. CONCLUSION: Previously silent hyperaldosteronism may be unmasked by a successful renal transplant.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/164. Primary aldosteronism in pregnancy.

    Aldosteronism is a rare complication of pregnancy. We report a case of a 26-year-old woman who became pregnant soon after a diagnosis of primary aldosteronism due to left adrenal adenoma was made. Only oral potassium supplementation was required in addition to routine prenatal care until 36 weeks' gestation. Subsequently, antihypertensive medication was needed to control elevated blood pressure. A healthy male infant was delivered by cesarean section because of abruptio placentae. The postoperative course was uneventful. Left adrenalectomy was conducted eight months after delivery under laparoscopic visualization. In this case report, we discuss management of aldosteronism in pregnancy and review the literature.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/164. Primary hyperaldosteronism without suppressed renin due to secondary hypertensive kidney damage.

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is characterized by high plasma and urinary aldosterone and suppressed PRA. renin suppression is due to aldosterone-dependent sodium retention and mild extracellular volume expansion. We observed three patients with primary hyperaldosteronism, severe refractory hypertension, and normal to high normal PRA levels whose aldosterone/renin ratios were still elevated because of disproportionately high aldosterone levels. All available medical data on the patients as well as publications on the aldosterone/renin relationship in primary hyperaldosteronism were reviewed to explain the unusual findings. In one patient, histologically proven renal arteriolosclerosis was the probable cause of the escape of PRA from suppression by an aldosterone-producing adenoma. In the other two patients, hypertensive kidney damage due to primary hyperaldosteronism was the most likely explanation for the inappropriately high PRA, as in patient 1. All patients had high normal or slightly elevated serum creatinine levels and responded to 200 mg spironolactone/day with increased serum creatinine and hyperkalemia. hyperkalemia was probably due to a decreased filtered load of sodium and a spironolactone-induced decrease in mineralocorticoid function. Two patients were cured of hyperaldosteronism by unilateral adrenalectomy but still need some antihypertensive therapy, whereas one patient has probable bilateral adrenal disease, with normal blood pressure on a low dose of spironolactone. In patients with severe hypertension due to primary hyperaldosteronism, PRA can escape suppression if hypertensive kidney damage supervenes. An increased aldosterone/PRA ratio is still useful in screening for primary hyperaldosteronism. These patients may respond to spironolactone therapy with a strong increase in serum creatinine and potassium. Early specific treatment of primary hyperaldosteronism is therefore indicated, and even a patient with advanced hypertension will profit from adrenalectomy or cautious spironolactone treatment.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/164. Conn's syndrome and bilateral renal artery stenosis in the presence of multiple renal arteries.

    We report the case of a 42-year-old male who was admitted to our hospital after an acute hypertensive crisis despite four-way anti-hypertensive therapy. The renal scintigraphy, the excretory urogram and the biochemical profile performed two years before were unremarkable, except for slightly elevated serum creatinine and plasma aldosterone, in presence of normal aldosterone/renin ratio. The renal arterial angiography that was performed despite a second unremarkable scintigraphy revealed high-grade bilateral arterial stenosis in the presence of multiple renal arteries. Following dilatation of the left stenosis, the aldosterone/renin ratio was pathologic. Recumbent and orthostatic aldosterone values were 830 pg/ml and 1824 pg/ml, respectively, and recumbent and orthostatic renin values were 0.82 and 1.21 ng angiotensin i/ml/h, respectively. The abdominal computed tomography performed to investigate a possible concomitant Conn's syndrome resulted in the detection of a left adrenal tumor. After resection of the lesion, plasma-aldosterone levels normalized and a pronounced rise in serum potassium levels was observed. Following angioplasty of the right renal artery stenosis, blood pressure could easily be managed with combined beta and calcium channel blocker therapy. Particularly in cases of bilateral (but also in the presence of unilateral) renal artery stenosis in association with Conn's syndrome, all the available screening methods for these disorders can fail. In cases of poor response to combination hypertensive therapies, renal arteriography and a fludrocortisone-suppression test should be performed in order to rule out both renal arterial stenosis and Conn's syndrome, even in the absence of clinical and biochemical findings suspicious for either disorder.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/164. A case of unilateral adrenal hyperplasia: the diagnostic dilemma of hyperaldosteronism.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the successful laparoscopic surgical management of a case of right unilateral adrenal hyperplasia. methods: We present a case of unilateral adrenal hyperplasia and review the pertinent literature. The effectiveness of surgical treatment of unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is evaluated. RESULTS: A 50-year-old man had a 7-year history of hypertension, which had been treated with antihypertensive medications. On initial assessment, he was taking long-acting diltiazem, 240 mg twice a day, and his blood pressure was 150/84 mm Hg. He was noted to have recurrent hypokalemia, low plasma renin activity, increased plasma aldosterone concentration, and high urinary aldosterone levels. magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands revealed a normal left adrenal gland and fullness of the right adrenal gland. Selective adrenal vein catheterization showed findings consistent with a right-sided adrenal gradient. Surgical removal of the right adrenal gland laparoscopically alleviated his symptoms and cured his hypertension and hypokalemia. Pathologic examination of the right adrenal gland revealed diffuse hyperplasia of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. plasma aldosterone, renin, and potassium levels returned to normal postoperatively, and his blood pressure declined to 120/70 mm Hg. At 1-year follow-up, the patient remained normotensive without the need for antihypertensive agents. CONCLUSIONS: This rare type of hyperaldosteronism, known as unilateral adrenal hyperplasia, is difficult to categorize not only because it fails to typify a conventional subtype but also because it is difficult to confirm the pathologic diagnosis. Recognition of the variety of provocative, biochemical, and imaging results that may be seen in this disorder is important in making the correct diagnosis. Determining unilaterality of disease by selective adrenal vein sampling can result in a cure of hypertension and hypokalemia by surgical resection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = potassium
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Hyperaldosteronism'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.