Cases reported "hyperaldosteronism"

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1/467. Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in a pregnant woman.

    A 30-year-old pregnant woman complained of muscle weakness at 29 weeks' gestation. She was hypertensive with severe hypokalemia. Lower plasma renin activity and higher aldosterone level than the normal values in pregnancy suggested primary aldosteronism. A cesarean delivery was performed at 31 weeks' gestation because of pulmonary congestion. The neonatal course was uncomplicated. The laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a 2.0-cm right adrenal adenoma resulted in normalizing of her blood pressure and serum potassium level. Although primary aldosteronism is rare, especially during pregnancy, it should be always considered as one of etiologies of hypertension in pregnancy. ( info)

2/467. ventricular fibrillation: an extreme presentation of primary hyperaldosteronism.

    patients with primary aldosteronism often present with hypokalemia and hypertension. Primary aldosteronism presenting as sudden death due to ventricular fibrillation is described in an otherwise healthy 37-year-old woman. After successful direct current cardioversion, serum potassium was 1.4 mmol/L. Investigations revealed a suppressed renin level, elevated serum aldosterone and a right adrenal nodule found on imaging. ventricular fibrillation has not previously been described as a presention of a biochemically and surgically proven aldosterone-producing adenoma. This case highlights the importance of early detection and proper diagnosis of secondary hypertension before serious sequelae occur. ( info)

3/467. A rare combination consisting of primary hyperaldosteronism and glucagonoma.

    A 59-yr-old man with multiple pancreatic tumors is presented. Previously, he had undergone left adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism and left nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma at the ages of 39 and 55 yr, respectively. This time, 3 yr after removal of renal cancer, two solid lesions in the pancreas associated with hyperglucagonemia were detected. Under a diagnosis of pancreatic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma or islet cell tumor of the pancreas, distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and enucleation of the tumor in the pancreas head were performed. Microscopically, a glucagonoma, measuring 2.3 mm in diameter, was detected among five pancreatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma. Four years after surgery, the patient remains well, without signs of recurrence despite multiple pancreatic metastases. This is the first report of such a rare combination consisting of aldosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma and glucagonoma. ( info)

4/467. A case of aldosterone-producing adenoma with severe postoperative hyperkalemia.

    It is known that some patients with primary aldosteronism show postoperative hyperkalemia, which is due to inability of the adrenal gland to secrete sufficient amounts of aldosterone. However, hyperkalemia is generally neither severe nor prolonged, in which replacement therapy with mineralocorticoid is seldom necessary. We report a case of a 46-year-old woman with an aldosterone-producing adenoma associated with severe postoperative hyperkalemia. After unilateral adrenalectomy, the patient showed episodes of severe hyperkalemia for four months, which required not only cation-exchange resin, but also mineralocorticoid replacement. plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was low, although PAC was increased after rapid ACTH test. Histological examination indicated the presence of adrenocortical tumor and paradoxical hyperplasia of zona glomerulosa in the adjacent adrenal. immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the enzymes involved in aldosterone synthesis, such as cholesterol side chain cleavage (P-450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), and 21-hydroxylase (P-450c21), or the enzyme involved in glucocorticoid synthesis, 11beta-hydroxylase (P-450c11beta), were expressed in the tumor, but they were completely absent in zona glomerulosa of the adjacent adrenal. These findings were consistent with the patterns of primary aldosteronism. serum potassium level was gradually decreased with concomitant increase in PAC. These results suggest that severe postoperative hyperkalemia of the present case was attributable to severe suppression of aldosterone synthesis in the adjacent and contralateral adrenal, which resulted in slow recovery of aldosterone secretion. It is plausible that aldosterone synthesis of adjacent and contralateral adrenal glands is severely impaired in some cases with primary aldosteronism, as glucocorticoid synthesis in cushing syndrome. ( info)

5/467. Coronary artery aneurysms, aortic dissection, and hypertension secondary to primary aldosteronism: a rare triad. A case report.

    Primary aldosteronism is a relatively uncommon etiology of hypertension. plasma renin activity is suppressed in the majority of the cases but not always. plasma renin activity has been associated with increased vascular injury. The occurrence of vascular complications has rarely been reported with low plasma renin activity. The authors report a case of long-standing secondary hypertension due to primary aldosteronism with coronary artery aneurysms and aortic dissection. Diagnosing is important, for therapeutic intervention can be curative. ( info)

6/467. Hazards of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's adenoma. When enthusiasm turns to tragedy.

    A 74-year-old man with primary aldosteronism had a small tumor (27 x 23 mm) of his right adrenal gland successfully removed by a transperitoneal laparoscopy. Despite absence of malignancy in the resected tumor and complete relief of all symptoms in the immediate postoperative period, recurrence occurred 6 months later. The tumor behaved as a carcinoma spread in the peritoneal cavity, and the patient eventually died with peritoneal carcinomatosis. We suggest that the laparoscopic technique coupled with pneumoperitoneum may have favored this recurrence. ( info)

7/467. Anaesthesia for Conn's syndrome.

    We describe the peri-operative management of two patients undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome; one using an open surgical approach and the other a laparoscopic technique. The first patient, aged 64 years, died of a myocardial infarction 5 days postoperatively; the second, aged 29 years, had an uneventful recovery. The pre-operative preparation, peroperative management and postoperative care of these patients are detailed, and the pathophysiology and clinical management of Conn's syndrome are reviewed. ( info)

8/467. A probable relationship between an endogenous digitalis-like substance and concentric cardiac hypertrophy in primary aldosteronism.

    A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to severe hypertension. An electrocardiogram (ECG) and an echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular hypertrophy. Her plasma aldosterone level was elevated. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small mass in the right adrenal gland. Before removal of the tumor, plasma endogenous digitalis-like substance (EDLS) levels were elevated. After removal of the tumor, EDLS levels quickly returned to the normal level. A series of echocardiograms and ECGs over a 6- year period after removal of the tumor showed marked regression of cardiac hypertrophy. These findings suggest that EDLS may be closely related to the development of concentric cardiac hypertrophy in primary aldosteronism. ( info)

9/467. aldosterone-producing adenoma without hypertension: a report of two cases.

    Normotensive primary hyperaldosteronism is exceedingly rare. We report two new cases of this syndrome in two middle-aged women, one of Asian origin. The presenting signs were tetany in one case and an adrenal mass in the other. Neither patient had hypertension, despite repeated measurements with a manual armlet. A typical biological profile of primary hyperaldosteronism was demonstrated in both patients, including hypokalemia with inappropriate kaliuresis, elevated resting plasma aldosterone, and undetectable plasma renin activity. The circadian rhythm of blood pressure was studied by ambulatory monitoring pre- and post-operatively. It confirmed the lack of hypertension, but the circadian rhythm of blood pressure was lost before surgery in one patient. Surgical removal of the histologically typical aldosterone-producing adenomas normalized the kalemia. The main finding in these two patients was spontaneously low blood pressure in the post-operative period. This suggests that excess aldosterone induced relative hypertension in these patients whose blood pressure was spontaneously very low. Genetic screening for dexamethasone-sensitive hyperaldosteronism was negative in both patients. ( info)

10/467. Approach to a patient with suspected primary aldosteronism.

    A typical case of a patient with suspected mineralocorticoid hypertension is discussed. The presentation follows sequential steps through the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of primary aldosteronism. The diagnostic approach can be classified into three phases: screening tests, confirmatory tests, and subtype differentiation studies. It is essential to follow the evaluation steps to elucidate the cause of primary aldosteronism, as this determines the appropriate treatment. Another lesson to learn is the need to critically appraise the value of any endocrine test, particularly if it is likely to influence the management strategy in an individual patient. ( info)
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