Cases reported "Hyperammonemia"

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1/32. Continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration in the acute treatment of hyperammonaemia due to ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    BACKGROUND: Acute hyperammonemia caused by urea cycle disorder is a medical emergency for which immediate managements should be taken to minimize permanent brain damage. Among different enzyme defects, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC) is one of the most common enzyme defect in urea cycle disorders. We utilized continuous renal replacement therapy techniques in the acute treatment of hyperammonemia due to ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. patients AND methods: Three male neonates with elevated serum ammonia levels were shown, based on urine organic acid analysis and serum amino acid studies, to have OTC deficiency. Administration of sodium benzoate and sodium phenylacetate for activating alternative nitrogen waste pathway were used associated with protein restriction. Other modalities, including blood exchange transfusion, peritoneal dialysis, continuous renal replacement therapy were utilized in an attempt to lower serum ammonia concentration. RESULTS: We report the successful use of continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH), continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis (CAVHD), continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration (CAVHDF) in the acute management of hyperammonemia due to OTC deficiency. We also compared the ammonia clearance between peritoneal dialysis, exchange transfusion, CAVH, CAVHD and CAVHDF. It demonstrated the evidence that CAVHDF provides the best ammonia clearance. CONCLUSION: Continuous renal replacement therapy including CAVH, CAVHD, and CAVHDF may be the alternative techniques for acute management of hyperammonemia in inborn error of metabolism when dialysis machine is not available. Our data suggests CAVHDF provides the best ammonia clearance.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, transcarbamylase deficiency, ornithine transcarbamylase, transcarbamylase, ornithine, deficiency
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2/32. A 6-year-old boy with hyperammonaemia: partial N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency or portosystemic encephalopathy?

    We describe a 6-year-old boy admitted with lethargy and somnolence. Laboratory tests showed hyperammonaemia (arterial level 186 micromol/l) and slightly elevated prothrombin time. The patient was treated with sodium benzoate, lactulose and a protein-restricted diet. This resulted in an insufficient decrease in blood ammonia levels. Metabolic investigations were unrevealing apart from a slightly elevated urinary glutamine concentration. Liver tissue showed steatosis and mildly decreased activity of N-acetylglutamate synthase suggesting partial deficiency. Treatment with N-carbamyl glutamate did not affect serum ammonia levels. Colour Doppler sonography and MR angiography demonstrated a patent ductus venosus. After surgical ligation of the ductus venosus, serum ammonia levels returned to normal and mental and motor performance improved markedly. CONCLUSION: In late onset hyperammonaemia, partial N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency and portocaval shunt should be ruled out.
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ranking = 0.00010994321496337
keywords = deficiency
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3/32. carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency: a destructive encephalopathy.

    carbamyl phosphate synthetase I is a urea cycle enzyme. Severe deficiency of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I presents in the neonatal period as hyperammonemic encephalopathy with altered consciousness and occasional seizures after feeding begins. Episodes of altered consciousness with or without seizures and focal neurologic deficits are seen later with patients of partial carbamyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency. Fatal cerebral edema with brain herniation may develop on occasion. Three patients presenting with carbamyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency are reported with neuroimaging and pathologic findings illustrating the destructive encephalopathy with acute cerebral edema, followed by diffuse cerebral atrophy and occasional cystic encephalomalacia. The deterioration in carbamyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency occurs during the hyperammonemic crises. This deficiency may be difficult to treat despite the current advances in treatment strategies, especially in neonatal-onset patients with low carbamyl phosphate synthetase I activity.
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ranking = 0.00016491482244506
keywords = deficiency
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4/32. arginine deficiency-induced hyperammonemia in a home total parenteral nutrition-dependent patient: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: patients with short bowel syndrome and renal dysfunction with TPN dependence are at high risk for developing hyperammonemia if the TPN does not contain sufficient quantities of arginine. Providing proper nutrition support is essential in the management of these patients. methods: We report on a patient with short bowel syndrome, TPN dependence, and normal renal function who developed hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to inadvertent lack of arginine in his TPN. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated with hemodialysis and an IV arginine infusion to resolve the hyperammonemia. His home TPN was also adjusted such that arginine was added to his subsequent solutions. CONCLUSIONS: Our patient underscores the importance of adequate and sustained arginine supplementation to avoid hyperammonemia in TPN dependent patients with short bowel syndrome.
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ranking = 7.3295476642249E-5
keywords = deficiency
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5/32. L-carnitine administration reverses acute mental status changes in a chronic hemodialysis patient with hepatitis c infection.

    A chronic hemodialysis patient presented with elevated serum ammonia concentration (189 micromol/l) and acutely altered mental status. He had been adequately dialyzed over the prior months and had no evidence of liver dysfunction, despite serological evidence for hepatitis c virus infection. His mental status deteriorated to coma despite vitamin replenishment, intensive hemodialysis, lactulose treatment, and blood pressure control over a 3-day period. Blood free L-carnitine concentration was depressed, and total carnitine concentrations was normal. Three hours after a single 2 g dose of L-carnitine was administered intravenously, the mental status reverted to normal. hyperammonemia resolved over a 5-week period. We suspect that subclinical liver dysfunction and dialysis status in tandem contributed to the carnitine deficiency, hyperammonemia, and confusion and that the L-carnitine administration reversed these biochemical and clinical abnormalities.
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ranking = 1.8323869160562E-5
keywords = deficiency
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6/32. ammonia detoxification by continuous venovenous haemofiltration in an infant with urea cycle defect.

    We report the case of a newborn baby with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency. He presented at 2 weeks of life, deteriorating to a state of hyperammonaemic coma and respiratory failure. Rapid detoxification was successfully achieved by continuous venovenous haemofiltration while a definitive diagnosis and treatment were determined. The ammonia clearance achieved by continuous venovenous haemofiltration was greater than 20 mL/min/m(2), which is superior to that achieved by peritoneal dialysis and arteriovenous haemofiltration in this age-group.
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ranking = 1.8323869160562E-5
keywords = deficiency
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7/32. pyruvate carboxylase deficiency--insights from liver transplantation.

    pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, complex form, presents in early infancy with lethal metabolic acidosis, resulting from ketoacidosis and lactic acidemia. Renal tubular acidosis, hyperammonemia, and citrullinemia complete the picture. In an infant with this disease, large amounts of glucose ameliorated the ketoacidosis, but worsened the lactic acidosis. Orthotopic hepatic transplantation completely reversed the ketoacidosis and the renal tubular abnormality and ameliorated the lactic acidemia. Concentrations of glutamine in cerebrospinal fluid were low and did not improve with liver transplantation.
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ranking = 9.1619345802812E-5
keywords = deficiency
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8/32. N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency and the treatment of hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

    Carbamylphosphate synthase is the first enzymatic reaction of the urea cycle. Its activator, N-acetylglutamate, is synthesized from acetyl-CoA and glutamate in a reaction catalyzed by N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS). We have identified the putative human NAGS gene and report the first mutation in this gene in a family with carbamylglutamate responsive hyperammonemia and normal activity of the urea cycle enzymes. mutation analysis has a higher diagnostic specificity than the enzymatic assay in NAGS deficiency. A therapeutic trial with carbamylglutamate is recommended whenever hyperammonemia without an organic aciduria, increased orotate excretion, or diagnostic amino acidemia/uria is detected.
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ranking = 9.1619345802812E-5
keywords = deficiency
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9/32. Late-onset presentation of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in a young woman with hyperammonemic coma.

    ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is an X-linked inherited disease and the most common inborn error in urea synthesis in human patients. In adult heterozygous patients, OTCD can be responsible for life-threatening hyperammonemic coma. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman admitted to our hospital with seizures after a recent high protein load. Her parents related a history of recurrent episodes of vomiting, meat refusal, lethargy, and convulsions since childhood, and measurement of plasma ammonemia levels was the key to early diagnosis of OTCD. We report the pathophysiologic characteristics, clinical features, clinical course, and differential diagnosis of OTCD and discuss the therapeutic options, including continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration and pharmacologic therapy for reduction of plasma ammonemia levels. A diagnosis of OTCD should be considered in adult nonhepatic patients with hyperammonemic coma, particularly if they have a history of protein avoidance and neurologic symptoms. Early recognition and appropriate treatment are critical to avoid severe brain damage and death.
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ranking = 0.7189050570615
keywords = ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, transcarbamylase deficiency, ornithine transcarbamylase, transcarbamylase, ornithine, deficiency
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10/32. Null mutations in the N-acetylglutamate synthase gene associated with acute neonatal disease and hyperammonemia.

    N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the formation of N-acetylglutamate, an essential allosteric activator of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I, the first enzyme of the urea cycle. Liver NAGS deficiency has previously been found in a small number of patients with hyperammonemia. The mouse and human NAGS genes have recently been cloned and expressed in our laboratory. We searched for mutations in the NAGS gene of two families with presumed NAGS deficiency. The exons and exon/intron boundaries of the NAGS gene were sequenced from genomic dna obtained from the parents of an infant from the Faroe islands who died in the neonatal period and from two Hispanic sisters who presented with acute neonatal hyperammonemia. Both parents of the first patient were found to be heterozygous for a null mutation in exon 4 (TGG-->TAG, Trp324Ter). Both sisters from the second family were homozygous for a single base deletion in exon 4 (1025delG) causing a frameshift and premature termination of translation. The finding of deleterious mutations in the NAGS gene confirms the genetic origin of NAGS deficiency. This disorder can now be diagnosed by dna testing allowing for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.
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ranking = 5.4971607481687E-5
keywords = deficiency
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