Cases reported "Hyperandrogenism"

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1/23. Adrenal adenocarcinoma and empty sella syndrome in a 37-year-old woman.

    The case of a 37-year-old woman with secondary amenorrhea and clear signs of hyperandrogenism is reported. The patient underwent hormonal evaluation including circadian rhythm of cortisol, gonadotropin-releasing hormone/thyroid-stimulating hormone (GnRH/TRH) test, corticotropic-releasing hormone (CRH) test and dexamethasone suppression test. She also underwent pelvic and adrenal ultrasound examination, adrenal computed axial tomography (CAT) scan and cranial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A mass about 10 cm in size was detected in the left adrenal region. The sella was empty and the pituitary displaced downward. Suspected adrenal adenocarcinoma was confirmed by histological examination after surgical removal of the mass. This case is of interest for physicians because of the mixed androgen and cortisol secretion of the adenocarcinoma in a hyperprolactinemic patient with empty sella. Moreover, it suggests the need to investigate the adrenal gland in patients with hyperprolactinemia and hirsutism.
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keywords = adrenal gland, adrenal, gland
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2/23. Hypersecretion of ovarian androgens may be gonadotrophin dependent many years after menopause.

    BACKGROUND: In fertile women both adrenals and ovaries contribute to androgen production, whereas after the menopause the ovarian contribution normally decreases. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this case study was to assess whether ovarian androgen secretion was responsive to decreased gonadotrophin stimulation and whether gonadotrophins were sensitive to negative feedback from sex steroids many years after the menopause. methods: In this uncontrolled case study a 72 years old slightly overweight woman with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus presented with hirsuitism and elevated serum testosterone concentrations. The woman was reluctant to have an oophorectomy, and received an oral estradiol/progestagene preparation. serum testosterone and gonadotrophin concentrations were measured before and after steroid hormone therapy. RESULTS: serum gonadotrophin concentrations decreased and testosterone levels returned to normal during therapy. When the hormone therapy was stopped for 1 month the high testosterone concentrations returned, but were again normalized when the hormone therapy was reinitiated. CONCLUSION: The ovaries of this woman were apparently still responsive to pituitary stimulation and her hypothalamic pituitary ovarian feed-back system still seemed to be working after 70 years of age.
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ranking = 0.15911032714101
keywords = adrenal
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3/23. Ovarian hyperthecosis in the setting of portal hypertension.

    Hepatocellular dysfunction and perturbed portal hemodynamics alter steroid metabolism. Men with liver disease have gynecomastia, although women similarly affected rarely show virilization. We report a 10-yr-old girl with portal hypertension and shunting associated with precocious puberty and ovarian hyperandrogenism. This was one of premature twin girls; neither had clitoromegaly or genital ambiguity. In one child, neonatal respiratory problems led to umbilical vein catheterization with subsequent development of portal hypertension. Pubic hair was first noted at age 6 yr, breasts at 7 yr, and severe acne and clitoromegaly at 10 yr. Baseline sex hormones were elevated: androstenedione (A), 413 ng/dL; testosterone (T), 226 ng/dL; and estradiol (E2), 160 pg/mL. Liver transaminases were within the normal range, however, the coagulation profile was mildly abnormal. cosyntropin adrenal stimulation revealed no steroidogenic defect. dexamethasone suppression reduced A and T slightly. LH-releasing hormone stimulation produced a pubertal rise in LH and FSH. Pelvic sonography showed a large right ovary with numerous follicles. Surgical exploration revealed symmetrically enlarged ovaries with dense capsules. histology of ovarian wedge resections showed hyperthecosis; immunohistochemistry showed stromal cells expressing steroidogenic enzymes and proteins. One month postoperatively, A and T were unchanged from baseline, whereas E2 decreased to 56 pg/mL. A single dose of depot leuprolide acetate significantly reduced T. Subsequent treatment with oral contraceptives reduced T to 50 ng/dL, and cyclical menses occurred. We conclude that precocious puberty and ovarian hyperthecosis were induced in this young girl by elevated circulating levels of sex hormones, a consequence of portasystemic shunting and impaired hepatic steroid metabolism.
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keywords = adrenal
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4/23. Diffuse stromal Leydig cell hyperplasia: a unique cause of postmenopausal hyperandrogenism and virilization.

    A 60-year-old woman presented with diffuse scalp alopecia, hirsutism, and clitorimegaly, and the mean serum testosterone levels were greater than 200 ng/dL. Findings on computed tomography of both adrenal glands were normal. After bilateral oophorectomy, a unique histological picture consisting of diffuse stromal Leydig cell hyperplasia was found. Reinke crystals were present, but neither hilus cell hyperplasia nor stromal hyperthecosis was noted. Sequencing of the 11 exons of the gene for the luteinizing hormone receptor revealed no abnormality. Relevant data suggest that treatment of the postmenopausal woman with hyperandrogenism and virilization is bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy if she has no pronounced ovarian enlargement or adrenal tumor on imaging. In this setting, an intensive endocrine evaluation or a search for metastatic disease seems to be unnecessary.
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ranking = 0.52266901857696
keywords = adrenal gland, adrenal, gland
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5/23. Use of a long-acting gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue in a postmenopausal woman with hyperandrogenism due to a hilus cell tumour.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prove the utility of GnRH analogues for the suppression of androgen secretion in a postmenopausal woman with a suspected virilizing ovarian tumour. DESIGN AND methods: We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with virilization of recent onset. Hormonal studies revealed a fourfold increase in serum testosterone levels, normal dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentrations and high levels of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels. Computed axial tomography scan of the ovaries was normal and the adrenal glands showed a discrete enlargement. The long-acting GnRH analogue, triptorelin, was injected initially (3.75mg i.m.) and serum hormone levels were measured weekly throughout one month. RESULTS: GnRH produced a decrease in serum testosterone levels to normal values, in parallel with the suppression of serum LH and FSH concentrations. The patient was treated for three months with triptorelin and she experienced an amelioration of the hyperandrogenic symptoms. In order to achieve a diagnosis, the patient was submitted to a laparotomy that revealed a small hilus cell tumour in the left ovary. CONCLUSION: GnRH analogues may offer a good therapeutic option in some states of gonadotrophin-dependent hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin.
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ranking = 0.36355869143594
keywords = adrenal gland, adrenal, gland
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6/23. Two hyperandrogenic adolescent girls with congenital portosystemic shunt.

    We describe two adolescent girls with a congenital portosystemic shunt who exhibited hyperandrogenism in addition to insulin resistant hyperinsulinaemia. Case 1 was referred to our clinic to undergo a routine clinical work-up prior to tonsillectomy at 14 years of age. Mild liver dysfunction was identified and hypogenesis of the portal vein with a congenital portosystemic shunt diagnosed. Primary amenorrhoea and virilization were evident and an endocrinological evaluation revealed hyperandrogenism and insulin resistant hyperinsulinaemia. Case 2 was referred at 15 years of age because of cardiomegaly. Mild liver dysfunction and hyperbilirubinaemia led to a diagnosis of agenesis of the portal vein with a congenital portosystemic shunt. Virilization was evident and an endocrinological evaluation revealed hyperandrogenism and insulin resistant hyperinsulinaemia. The haemodynamics of these patients were similar to those of secondary portosystemic shunt due to liver cirrhosis, which is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and/or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, hyperandrogenism is associated with certain insulin-resistant conditions with hyperinsulinaemia, including the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO). Hyperinsulinaemia is believed to cause hyperandrogenism in patients with PCO by stimulating androgen production in both the ovary and adrenal gland. Therefore, in congenital portosystemic shunts, hyperinsulinaemia is also thought to cause hyperandrogenism due to the same mechanism. CONCLUSION: A certain percentage of female patients with hyperandrogenism, likely including those with polycystic ovary syndrome may also have congenital portosystemic shunts. Our results indicate that serum levels of total bile acids and ammonia are prognostic indicators of this hepatic vascular anomaly.
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ranking = 0.36355869143594
keywords = adrenal gland, adrenal, gland
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7/23. Postmenopausal hyperthecosis: functional dysregulation of androgenesis in climacteric ovary.

    BACKGROUND: hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin is rare in postmenopausal women. However, there is evidence that the ovaries of postmenopausal women are active endocrine glands, secreting mainly androgens. CASE: A postmenopausal woman sought treatment for progressive hirsutism. Endocrine evaluation revealed androgen excess. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed enlarged ovaries. hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were recommended. However, surgery had to be withheld for 6 months while the patient recovered from an acute myocardial infarction. In the interim, the patient's hyperandrogenemia was successfully treated with monthly injections of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH), leuprolide acetate. CONCLUSION: This report illustrates the potential for postmenopausal ovaries to become active androgen-secreting endocrine organs. It also demonstrates the efficacy of pharmacologic intervention for postmenopausal ovarian hyperthecosis when the patient is a poor surgical candidate.
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ranking = 0.00079101571965978
keywords = gland
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8/23. Treatment with flutamide decreases cortisol clearance: implications for therapy in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    BACKGROUND: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is characterized by a defect in cortisol and often aldosterone secretion, and adrenal hyperandrogenism. Current treatment is to provide adequate glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid substitution to prevent adrenal crises and to suppress excess adrenocortical androgen secretion. Anti-androgen therapy with flutamide is an option that allows control of hyperandrogenism without recourse to supraphysiological doses of glucocorticoid. methods: We examined the pharmacokinetic parameters of hydrocortisone administered i.v. as a bolus at a dose of 15 mg/m2 in a 17.3 year-old female patient with classic CAH before and four weeks after institution of flutamide treatment by determining serum cortisol concentrations at 10 min intervals for 6 h following the i.v. bolus of hydrocortisone. RESULTS: Treatment with flutamide resulted in a decrease in cortisol clearance from 420 ml/l to 305 ml/l (27% reduction), and a decrease in volume of distribution from 51.61 to 451 (12.9% reduction). The half-life of cortisol increased from 85.3 min to 102.1 min. CONCLUSIONS: flutamide treatment decreases cortisol clearance, thereby prolonging its half-life. These findings indicate that a reduction in the daily dose of glucocorticoid replacement may need to be considered when flutamide is added to the treatment regimen of patients receiving hydrocortisone.
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ranking = 1.1137722899871
keywords = adrenal
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9/23. Ovarian steroid cell tumor and a contralateral ovarian thecoma in a postmenopausal woman with severe hyperandrogenism.

    A 49-year-old woman presented with rapidly progressing hirsutism, receding hairline, male-pattern baldness and deepening of voice, which had developed over the past 2 years. Hormonal evaluation showed a markedly elevated serum testosterone level (418 ng/dl) and no evidence of increased production of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiadrosterone-sulfate, androstenedione, or 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Transvaginal ultrasound examination suggested the presence of a small mass within the left ovary, but all other radiological studies, including adrenal and ovarian computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, radio-labelled cholesterol scintigraphy and positron emission tomography, were negative. Subsequently, bilateral selective venous sampling showed a marked testosterone gradient in the right ovarian vein. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed (the patient had had a previous vaginal hysterectomy), and histopathological examination revealed a 10-mm steroid cell tumor within the right ovary and a 15-mm thecal cell tumor within the left ovary. The postoperative serum testosterone level returned to normal and the patient showed a slow regression of clinical symptoms. The simultaneous occurrence of a virilizing ovarian steroid cell tumor and an apparently non-functioning thecoma within the contralateral ovary emphasizes the potential pitfalls that may exist in the preoperative evaluation of patients with markedly increased testosterone production.
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ranking = 0.15911032714101
keywords = adrenal
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10/23. Androgen-secreting adrenal adenomas.

    BACKGROUND: The androgen source in women with hirsutism and signs of virilism may be the ovary or adrenal gland. CASES: Three patients with androgen excess are reported. Two had hyperandrogenemia and cushing syndrome with an adrenal mass greater than 5.5 cm; the third had a small adrenal adenoma secreting only testosterone and responsive to human chorionic gonadotropin. In all cases, the pathologic report from surgery and the long-term resolution of symptoms confirmed the benign nature of the tumors. CONCLUSION: Basal and dynamic hormonal tests cannot precisely differentiate ovarian from adrenal tumors. Adrenal adenomas must be considered as a cause of hyperandrogenic syndrome.
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ranking = 1.477330981423
keywords = adrenal gland, adrenal, gland
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