Cases reported "hyperandrogenism"

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1/55. Hilus cell tumour of the ovary in a virilized, premenopausal woman. Case report and review of hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin.

    A 35 year-old woman presented with virilization and was found to have elevated serum testosterone levels. Investigation revealed an 11 mm hilus cell tumour in the left ovary. After unilateral oophorectomy, serum testosterone levels rapidly returned to normal levels. The various ovarian tumours and conditions causing virilization are described and a clinical approach to the investigation of virilization is outlined. ( info)

2/55. Clearance of acanthosis nigricans associated with the hair-AN syndrome after partial pancreatectomy: an 11-year follow-up.

    We describe a woman with the syndrome characterised by hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans (the hair-AN syndrome), and an associated insulinoma (islet B-cell tumour), whose signs and symptoms cleared after partial pancreatectomy. ( info)

3/55. Adrenal adenocarcinoma and empty sella syndrome in a 37-year-old woman.

    The case of a 37-year-old woman with secondary amenorrhea and clear signs of hyperandrogenism is reported. The patient underwent hormonal evaluation including circadian rhythm of cortisol, gonadotropin-releasing hormone/thyroid-stimulating hormone (GnRH/TRH) test, corticotropic-releasing hormone (CRH) test and dexamethasone suppression test. She also underwent pelvic and adrenal ultrasound examination, adrenal computed axial tomography (CAT) scan and cranial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A mass about 10 cm in size was detected in the left adrenal region. The sella was empty and the pituitary displaced downward. Suspected adrenal adenocarcinoma was confirmed by histological examination after surgical removal of the mass. This case is of interest for physicians because of the mixed androgen and cortisol secretion of the adenocarcinoma in a hyperprolactinemic patient with empty sella. Moreover, it suggests the need to investigate the adrenal gland in patients with hyperprolactinemia and hirsutism. ( info)

4/55. Clinical presentation of PCOS following development of an insulinoma: case report.

    A 24 year old woman presented with a prolonged clinical history of fasting and exertional hypoglycaemia, and was subsequently diagnosed with an insulinoma. Concurrent symptoms of oligomenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism of similar duration were noted. Biochemically, hyperinsulinaemia was observed in association with a raised serum luteinizing hormone (LH), raised testosterone and androstendione concentrations. Surgical removal of the insulinoma resulted in resolution of the clinical and biochemical features of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) but minimal change was observed in the ovarian ultrasound appearances. This case demonstrates the role of insulin in mediating the hypersecretion of both LH and androgens in women with polycystic ovaries. We suggest that hyperinsulinaemia converted occult 'polycystic ovaries' to become clinically manifest as 'polycystic ovary syndrome'. This paradigm has clear implications for women with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus who presumably have systemic hyperinsulinaemia. ( info)

5/55. Ovarian cancer in female-to-male transsexuals: report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Ovarium cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in women and is the most common fatal gynecologic malignancy. So far, ovarium carcinoma has not been reported to have occurred in female-to-male transsexuals. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: We report on two such cases. Long-term exposure to increased levels of endogenous and exogenous androgens is hypothesized to constitute an additional risk factor in transsexuals as it has been associated with ovarian epithelian cancer. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous salpingo-oophorectomy should be performed in any female-to-male transsexual undergoing hysterectomy in the course of gender-confirming therapy. ( info)

6/55. Hypersecretion of ovarian androgens may be gonadotrophin dependent many years after menopause.

    BACKGROUND: In fertile women both adrenals and ovaries contribute to androgen production, whereas after the menopause the ovarian contribution normally decreases. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this case study was to assess whether ovarian androgen secretion was responsive to decreased gonadotrophin stimulation and whether gonadotrophins were sensitive to negative feedback from sex steroids many years after the menopause. methods: In this uncontrolled case study a 72 years old slightly overweight woman with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus presented with hirsuitism and elevated serum testosterone concentrations. The woman was reluctant to have an oophorectomy, and received an oral estradiol/progestagene preparation. serum testosterone and gonadotrophin concentrations were measured before and after steroid hormone therapy. RESULTS: serum gonadotrophin concentrations decreased and testosterone levels returned to normal during therapy. When the hormone therapy was stopped for 1 month the high testosterone concentrations returned, but were again normalized when the hormone therapy was reinitiated. CONCLUSION: The ovaries of this woman were apparently still responsive to pituitary stimulation and her hypothalamic pituitary ovarian feed-back system still seemed to be working after 70 years of age. ( info)

7/55. Ovarian hyperthecosis in the setting of portal hypertension.

    Hepatocellular dysfunction and perturbed portal hemodynamics alter steroid metabolism. Men with liver disease have gynecomastia, although women similarly affected rarely show virilization. We report a 10-yr-old girl with portal hypertension and shunting associated with precocious puberty and ovarian hyperandrogenism. This was one of premature twin girls; neither had clitoromegaly or genital ambiguity. In one child, neonatal respiratory problems led to umbilical vein catheterization with subsequent development of portal hypertension. Pubic hair was first noted at age 6 yr, breasts at 7 yr, and severe acne and clitoromegaly at 10 yr. Baseline sex hormones were elevated: androstenedione (A), 413 ng/dL; testosterone (T), 226 ng/dL; and estradiol (E2), 160 pg/mL. liver transaminases were within the normal range, however, the coagulation profile was mildly abnormal. cosyntropin adrenal stimulation revealed no steroidogenic defect. dexamethasone suppression reduced A and T slightly. LH-releasing hormone stimulation produced a pubertal rise in LH and FSH. Pelvic sonography showed a large right ovary with numerous follicles. Surgical exploration revealed symmetrically enlarged ovaries with dense capsules. histology of ovarian wedge resections showed hyperthecosis; immunohistochemistry showed stromal cells expressing steroidogenic enzymes and proteins. One month postoperatively, A and T were unchanged from baseline, whereas E2 decreased to 56 pg/mL. A single dose of depot leuprolide acetate significantly reduced T. Subsequent treatment with oral contraceptives reduced T to 50 ng/dL, and cyclical menses occurred. We conclude that precocious puberty and ovarian hyperthecosis were induced in this young girl by elevated circulating levels of sex hormones, a consequence of portasystemic shunting and impaired hepatic steroid metabolism. ( info)

8/55. Diffuse stromal Leydig cell hyperplasia: a unique cause of postmenopausal hyperandrogenism and virilization.

    A 60-year-old woman presented with diffuse scalp alopecia, hirsutism, and clitorimegaly, and the mean serum testosterone levels were greater than 200 ng/dL. Findings on computed tomography of both adrenal glands were normal. After bilateral oophorectomy, a unique histological picture consisting of diffuse stromal Leydig cell hyperplasia was found. Reinke crystals were present, but neither hilus cell hyperplasia nor stromal hyperthecosis was noted. Sequencing of the 11 exons of the gene for the luteinizing hormone receptor revealed no abnormality. Relevant data suggest that treatment of the postmenopausal woman with hyperandrogenism and virilization is bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy if she has no pronounced ovarian enlargement or adrenal tumor on imaging. In this setting, an intensive endocrine evaluation or a search for metastatic disease seems to be unnecessary. ( info)

9/55. Use of a long-acting gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue in a postmenopausal woman with hyperandrogenism due to a hilus cell tumour.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prove the utility of GnRH analogues for the suppression of androgen secretion in a postmenopausal woman with a suspected virilizing ovarian tumour. DESIGN AND methods: We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with virilization of recent onset. Hormonal studies revealed a fourfold increase in serum testosterone levels, normal dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentrations and high levels of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels. Computed axial tomography scan of the ovaries was normal and the adrenal glands showed a discrete enlargement. The long-acting GnRH analogue, triptorelin, was injected initially (3.75mg i.m.) and serum hormone levels were measured weekly throughout one month. RESULTS: GnRH produced a decrease in serum testosterone levels to normal values, in parallel with the suppression of serum LH and FSH concentrations. The patient was treated for three months with triptorelin and she experienced an amelioration of the hyperandrogenic symptoms. In order to achieve a diagnosis, the patient was submitted to a laparotomy that revealed a small hilus cell tumour in the left ovary. CONCLUSION: GnRH analogues may offer a good therapeutic option in some states of gonadotrophin-dependent hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin. ( info)

10/55. Valproate, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries: a report of 3 cases.

    BACKGROUND: Reproductive endocrine disorders characterized by menstrual disorders, polycystic ovaries, and hyperandrogenism seem to be common among women treated with sodium valproate for epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development of valproate-related reproductive endocrine disorders in women with epilepsy. DESIGN: Case report. patients: Three patients developed a reproductive endocrine disorder during treatment with valproate. It was characterized by hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries in all cases, and it was associated with weight gain and menstrual disorders in 2 of the 3 women. RESULTS: Replacing valproate with lamotrigine resulted in a decrease in serum testosterone concentrations in all 3 women. The polycystic changes disappeared from the ovaries in 2 of the women after valproate therapy was discontinued, and the 2 women who had gained weight and developed amenorrhea while being treated with valproate lost weight and resumed menstruating after the change in medication. CONCLUSIONS: The 3 cases presented here illustrate the development of reproductive endocrine disorders after the initiation of valproate therapy in women with epilepsy. The disorders were characterized by hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries in all cases, and were associated with weight gain and menstrual disorders in 2 of the 3 women. An evaluation of ovarian structure and function should be considered in women of reproductive age being treated with valproate for epilepsy, especially if they develop menstrual cycle disturbances during treatment. ( info)
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