Cases reported "Hyperbilirubinemia"

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1/2. Successful combination therapy--flunarizine, pentoxifylline, and cholestyramine--for spur cell anemia.

    Spur cell anemia, a hemolytic anemia observed in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, is characterized by unusual erythrocyte morphology and an increased ratio of free cholesterol to phospholipid in the erythrocyte membrane. The prognosis of spur cell anemia is usually extremely poor, however, we describe here a patient with spur cell anemia who was successfully treated with combination therapy consisting of flunarizine, pentoxifylline, and cholestyramine. Initial therapy with flunarizine alone for 6 weeks did not significantly decrease the number of spur cells on peripheral blood smears. So pentoxifylline was added to the regimen. The patient recovered from the anemia, showed remarkable improvement with regard to the hyperbilirubinemia, and the changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of spur cells in peripheral blood smears. To correct the hypercholesterolemia, cholestyramine was added to the regimen, which resulted in a reduction in the serum level of free cholesterol and an increase in the molar ratio of free cholesterol to phospholipid in erythrocyte membrane. However, 6 months later a skin eruption developed that was considered an adverse reaction to the drugs, so the flunarizine and pentoxifylline were discontinued. With cholestyramine therapy alone, the remission of spur cell anemia was maintained for more than 11 months. These observations suggest that non-invasive combination therapy with flunarizine, pentoxifylline, and cholestyramine is effective and valuable in the treatment of patients with spur cell anemia.
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keywords = eruption
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2/2. Purpuric phototherapy-induced eruption in transfused neonates: relation to transient porphyrinemia.

    OBJECTIVE: Blue light phototherapy is commonly administered to neonates as treatment of indirect hyperbilirubinemia, often in conjunction with blood transfusions to treat hemolytic anemia. We observed a distinctive cutaneous complication of phototherapy in six neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. METHODOLOGY: We studied the clinical and histologic characteristics of the eruption, as well as the porphyrin levels in affected neonates. Five of the patients had erythroblastosis fetalis; the other had profound anemia from twin-twin transfusion. All of the neonates developed purpuric patches at sites of maximal exposure to the phototherapy lights, with dramatic sparing at shielded sites within 24 hours after initiation of the phototherapy. On discontinuation of phototherapy, all eruptions cleared within 1 week. Examination of skin biopsy sections showed purpura without significant inflammation or keratinocyte necrosis. plasma porphyrins (copro- and proto-) were elevated in the two patients in which they were assessed. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the eruption in areas exposed to light and presence of circulating porphyrins suggest that porphyrinemia may underlie the light-induced purpuric eruption. Additional studies will be required to determine definitively the mechanisms of both the purpuric phototherapy-induced eruption and the development of increased blood porphyrin levels in these transfused neonates.
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keywords = eruption
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