Cases reported "Hypercalcemia"

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1/50. hypercalcemia-induced renal insufficiency during therapy with dihydrotachysterol.

    During vitamin-D therapy drug accumulation and intoxication should be considered. In the present study we report on five patients with renal insufficiency during therapy with dihydrotachysterol or calcitriol. Four patients received dihydrotachysterol for 29 (7-44) years and one patient received calcitriol for 4 years to treat hypoparathyroidism after thyroid surgery. As confirmed by renal biopsy impairment of renal function was due to calcifications as a consequence of prolonged hypercalcemia. The effective duration of dihydrotachysterol is ten days as compared with five days for calcitriol. Severe hypercalcemic episodes with dihydrotachysterol are longer-lasting than those with the shorter acting vitamin-D derivatives. Further, they occur with higher incidence as was shown by our own observations and previously published data by other workers. Hence, impairment of renal function during therapy with dihydrotachysterol should be considered as being due to hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria.
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2/50. growth and metabolic disturbances in a patient with total parenteral nutrition: a case of hypercalciuric hypercalcemia.

    hypercalciuria is a common side effect during total parenteral nutrition (TPN). We report a patient with long-term TPN, who demonstrated hypercalciuria, hypercalcemia and growth retardation. The patient is a six-year-old Japanese girl with hirschsprung disease (jejunal agangliosis). jejunostomy was performed at one-month old and since then her nutrition has depended mostly on TPN. When she was 3 years old, continuous TPN was switched to cyclic TPN (on TPN for 11 hrs and off TPN for 13 hrs). The urinary calcium level has been elevated (Ca/Cre ratio, 1.0) since 3 months of age, whereas serum calcium levels stayed within normal range for a while. The serum calcium levels started to elevate to 12 to approximately 13 mg/dl when she was 3 years and 8 months old. She showed growth retardation (height SD score was -4.2SD when she was 5 years and 8 months old) and deteriorated renal tubular function with renal glycosuria, elevated beta 2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. She was referred to our division for the investigation and treatment of growth disturbance and Ca metabolism. Her bone age was delayed (BA/CA 0.62) and serum IGF-I level was decreased but her GH response to provocation test was normal. Bilateral nephrocalcinosis was revealed by renal echogram and CT scan. By reducing calcium content in TPN solution, the serum and urinary calcium levels could be maintained within normal range and her renal function and growth velocity was improved.
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3/50. Course and outcome of pregnancy in a patient with mild, asymptomatic, primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosed before conception.

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) during pregnancy is well known to confer an increased risk of complications to both the mother and the fetus. However, the risks and optimal management of patients with mild, asymptomatic disease during pregnancy are much less clear. We observed a patient with mild, asymptomatic PHP who was diagnosed before conception through pregnancy. The patient remained asymptomatic through the first 22 weeks of pregnancy, and her calcium levels remained under 11 mg/dL. This occurred despite a dramatic elevation in the level of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and marked hypercalciuria. Parathyroid surgery was performed at 22 weeks of gestation and a parathyroid adenoma was removed. Postoperatively, the patient's calcium level normalized and the rest of the pregnancy was uncomplicated. The patient delivered a healthy baby at 40 weeks of gestation. The neonatal course was unremarkable. We conclude that mild, asymptomatic PHP during early pregnancy is compatible with normal fetal development and an uncomplicated pregnancy and that the serum calcium level in such patients can remain stable with medical management alone, despite the marked changes in maternal calcium metabolism that characterize normal pregnancy.
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4/50. Primary neonatal hyperparathyroidism. Report of a case and review of the literature.

    The seventh case in the world literature of primary hyperparathyroidism in a neonate is reported. This is the fifth case in which an autopsy was performed. The clinical and anatomic findings in all seven cases are reviewed and compared. Neonates with primary hyperparathyroidism show diffuse hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands. The bones show disturbed osteogenesis, bone resorption, and widespread fibrosis of the marrow cavities. Bony cysts are not appreciated. Pathologic fractures are common. Marked hypercalciuria or hyperphosphaturia is usually not observed, perhaps because the immature renal tubules fail to respond to the influence of excess parathormone. Aminoaciduria and anemia are commonly observed. The prognosis is grave, and the etiology of this syndrome remains unexplained.
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5/50. Familial hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria: no mutations in the Ca2 -sensing receptor gene.

    A 6-year-old boy presented with persistent hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis from early infancy. His 40-year-old father also had hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. In both individuals serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were repeatedly normal. Although these findings suggest a functional abnormality of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), no mutations in coding regions of the CaR gene could be demonstrated.
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6/50. hypercalcemia and idiopathic hypoparathyroidism.

    Idiopathic primary hypoparathyroidism (prHP) is a rare disorder and clinical experience of its management is limited. Prolonged immobilization of such patients can cause hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. We report on a boy with prHP who developed hypercalcemia and renal failure as a result of calcium and calcitriol substitution not being stopped while he was immobilized for 2 months. Any substitution in patients with prHP must be stopped during prolonged immobilization. Laboratory monitoring is mandatory during this period.
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7/50. Inactivating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor results in parathyroid lipohyperplasia.

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by mild hypercalcemia, an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level, and absence of hypercalciuria. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) are found in about two thirds of patients with FHH. Histologic examination of parathyroid glands in FHH is reported to show normal histology or chief cell hyperplasia. Thus, histologic features of the parathyroid glands in FHH vary, and there is no clear histologic criterion that indicates FHH. The authors have encountered three hypercalcemic patients with characteristic histologic features of enlarged parathyroid glands. Clusters of parenchymal cells were mixed with fat cells, and the area of fat cells was 33% to 49% of the total area. These features are similar to those described as parathyroid lipohyperplasia. Postoperative evaluation showed that fractional excretion of calcium was low in these patients. Direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction product showed that the first patient was heterozygous for an already reported inactivating mutation of CaSR (P55L). The second patient was also heterozygous for a novel inactivating mutation (R220W). The third was homozygous for an inactivating mutation (Q27R). These results indicate that histologic features of parathyroid lipohyperplasia suggest the presence of inactivating mutations of CaSR.
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8/50. parathyroid hormone-related protein induced coupled increases in bone formation and resorption markers for 7 years in a patient with malignant islet cell tumors.

    parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and PTH share the common PTH/PTHrP receptor. Although an elevated level of circulating PTHrP in patients with malignancies causes hypercalcemia as does PTH, chronic and systemic effects of PTHrP on bone metabolism in humans are not well understood because tumor-burden patients showing hypercalcemia usually have a poor prognosis. We investigated bone and calcium metabolism in a patient with malignant islet cell tumors showing hypercalcemia due to the elevated plasma PTHrP level for 7 years. hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria continued throughout the clinical course in spite of frequent infusions of bisphosphonates. bone resorption markers and a bone formation marker were consistently elevated as seen in primary hyperparathyroidism, a disease caused by an autonomous hypersecretion of PTH. Based on biochemical measurements including bone markers and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the clinical features of this case essentially are the same as those of primary hyperparathyroidism except for the elevated level of plasma PTHrP with suppressed intact PTH level. Therefore, it is suggested that chronic and systemic effects of PTHrP on bone as well as calcium metabolism are indistinguishable from those of PTH in human.
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9/50. Hypercalcaemia in association with trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome).

    The combination of hypercalcaemia, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis with and without renal impairment is rare in paediatric clinical practice. However, this constellation of findings has been reported in three children with trisomy 21, but the absence of detailed nutritional data has failed to clarify the underlying pathogenesis. This report describes a 4 year old girl with trisomy 21 who was found coincidentally to have hypercalcaemia, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal impairment in the absence of metabolic alkalosis, following a prolonged period of excessive calcium intake.
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10/50. Iatrogenic hypercalcemia due to vitamin D3 ointment (1,24(OH)2D3) combined with thiazide diuretics in a case of psoriasis.

    Tacalcitol is a synthetic vitamin D3 analogue developed for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. hypercalcemia has not been previously reported during treatment with topical tacalcitol. We experienced a male patient with psoriasis and hypertension whose conditions were treated with tacalcitol ointment and thiazide, respectively, resulting in hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia. After initiation of topical vitamin D3 ointment (20 micro g/g of tacalcitol) 10 g/day for the skin lesions, both the serum level of calcium and urinary excretion of calcium increased gradually. On day 28 of the treatment, his serum calcium levels had reached 3.55 mmol/l, and his urinary calcium excretion had also increased from 0.008 g/day to 0.475 g/day. The tacalcitol treatment was terminated, seven days later, the serum calcium level had returned to the reference range without any specific treatment. The present case is the first report of hypercalcemia induced by vitamin D3 ointment and thiazide simultaneously.
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