Cases reported "Hypercalcemia"

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1/385. Intact PTH-producing hepatocellular carcinoma treated by transcatheter arterial embolization.

    We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma with hypercalcemia. There was no evidence of bone metastasis or increase in parathyroid hormone-related protein. The serum level of intact parathyroid hormone (intact PTH) was very high, and the results of the hepatic venous sampling suggested that the tumor produced intact PTH. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization effectively controlled the humoral hypercalcemia.
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2/385. bone marrow examinations as final clue to diagnosis of hypercalcemia: report of two cases.

    Two young men with severe hypercalcemia in association with renal failure (one acute and one chronic) are reported in whom usual diagnostic tests failed to reveal an etiology, and the final diagnoses were given by bone marrow examinations. Early bone marrow examinations in specific patients with hypercalcemia of undetermined origin sometimes are vital as shown by our two patients.
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3/385. Unaccountable severe hypercalcemia in a patient treated for hypoparathyroidism with dihydrotachysterol.

    This report describes a forty-seven-year-old female patient with a complex medical history. She was suffering from an unspecified interstitial lung disease, papillary thyroid carcinoma which had been treated, hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy for which she was receiving dihydrotachysterol and calcium, and atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure as a result of mitral stenosis. Shortly after mitral valve replacement she developed a severe hypercalcemia (serum calcium 5.95 mmol/l) during a febrile illness. At that time anti-tuberculous agents were also being administered for presumed tuberculosis. The possible mechanisms for this severe elevation of the calcium level are discussed. immobilization, while Paget's bone disease was present, and perhaps enhanced activation of dihydrotachysterol by rifampicin, could have led to increased calcium-release into the circulation. Continuous supplecation of calcium and vitamin d, provoked dehydration and the mechanism of the milk-alkali syndrome also contributed to this extremely high calcium level. It is concluded that hypoparathyroid patients being treated with vitamin d and calcium should be carefully monitored in the case of an intercurrent illness or a change in medication.
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4/385. parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP)-associated hypercalcemia in a patient with an atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    We describe a patient with an atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) of the mixed cell type with a hypercalcemia due to parathyroid hormone-related protein production by the malignant B cells. On regard of the elevated serum calcium level without overt lytic bone lesions we found elevated serum levels of PTH-rP and demonstrated the presence of PTH-rP on the malignant lymphocytes. PTH-rP-related hypercalcemia in CLL is very rare. The role in PTH-rP in humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy is discussed.
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5/385. pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with elevated levels of circulating parathyroid hormone-related protein: a report of two cases.

    Two lactating women who had complained of back pain developed spontaneous vertebral fractures with low bone mineral density (BMD) several months postpartum. The back pain and biochemical abnormalities presented as hypercalcemia and elevated plasma levels of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) that returned to normal indices with increasing BMD after weaning. The increased circulating PTH-rP might contribute to the pregnancy-associated osteoporosis in women who probably are already osteopenic.
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6/385. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach. Primary hyperparathyroidism simulating an acute severe polyneuritis.

    The case is presented of a 65 year old lady with recent onset of neuromuscular manifestations, comprising paraparesis, areflexia and unsteady gait, along with episodes of slurring of speech and diplopia, later confirmed to be due to severe hypercalcaemia--which itself was caused by primary hyperparathyroidism. Restoration of normocalcaemia, by means of rehydration and bisphosphonate therapy, resulted in clinical improvement--whilst subsequent parathyroidectomy was followed by complete resolution of all symptoms. In order to make prompt differentiation between the neurological sequelae of hyperparathyroidism and a primary neurological disorder, a high index of suspicion is required. An urgent serum calcium assay, as part of a bone profile, is mandatory in patients who present with neurological symptoms--especially the elderly, amongst whom hyperparathyroidism is especially common.
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7/385. Primary multifocal lymphoma of bone presenting as hypercalcemic crisis: report of a rare manifestation of extranodal lymphoma.

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of bone is uncommon and usually manifests clinically as localized bone pain. Here we report a woman who presented with hypercalcemic crisis and extensive investigation revealed a primary multifocal lymphoma of bone. The course of the disease was very aggressive and despite intensive supportive care and urgent chemotherapy the patient died within 1 month. Since her blood PTH and calcitriol levels were suppressed and her parathyroid-hormone-related peptide (PTHrp) was mildly elevated, we believe that release of cytokines combined with PTHrp, as well as extensive osteolytic lesions, were the causes of the hypercalcemia. This is an unusual presenting symptom of lymphomas and to the best of our knowledge severe symptomatic hypercalcemia and crisis has never been reported in primary lymphoma of bone before.
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8/385. hypercalcemia in an euthyroid patient with secondary hypoadrenalism and diabetes insipidus due to hypothalamic tumor.

    A 20-year-old Japanese man with a hypothalamic tumor (most likely germ-cell tumor) which caused secondary hypoadrenalism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus developed hypercalcemia and acute renal failure. The serum levels of intact PTH (iPTH), PTH-related protein (PTH-rP), 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin d (1,25- (OH)2 D), ACTH, cortisol, gonadotropins and testosterone were decreased, but his serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were within the normal range at admission, with depressed TSH and slightly increased thyroglobulin. The hypercalcemia was refractory to extensive hydration and calcitonin, but was ameliorated by pamidronate. After irradiation of the hypothalamic tumor, panhypopituitarism gradually developed. The patient has been normocalcemic for the last 2 years and is doing well under replacement therapy with glucocorticoid, L-thyroxine, methyltestosterone and 1-desamino D arginine vasopressin (dDAVP). As to the mechanism of euthyroidism at admission, transient destructive thyroiditis associated with hypopituitarism or delayed development of hypothyroidism following the hypoadrenalism was suggested. This is the first reported case of hypercalcemia in secondary hypoadrenalism due to hypothalamic tumor. hypercalcemia was most likely induced by increased bone resorption, which was probably elicited by the combined effects of deficient glucocorticoid and sufficient thyroid hormones in addition to hypovolemia and reduced renal calcium excretion. Furthermore, severe dehydration due to diabetes insipidus and disturbance of thirst sensation caused by the hypothalamic tumor aggravated the hypercalcemia, leading to acute renal failure.
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9/385. paraneoplastic syndromes of leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, and hypercalcemia associated with squamous cell carcinoma.

    paraneoplastic syndromes including leukocytosis, thrombocytosis and hypercalcemia are occasionally seen in patients suffering from progressive malignant disorders. Recent studies have revealed the production of several humoral factors by tumor cells and normal splenic cells of tumor-bearing patients to be the major cause of these reactions. granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), parathyroid hormone-related peptide, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated. We describe a 58-year-old Japanese man with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on the left sole, which developed in a deep linear scar after a train crash. He developed pulmonary and lymph node metastases, then leukocytosis (57,110/mm3 with 95% neutrophilia), thrombocytosis (86.3 x 10(4)/mm3), and hypercalcemia (7.0 mEq/1), and finally cachexia, followed by death. serum G-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and TNF-beta were determined; revealing G-CSF and IL-1 beta levels were above the upper limits of their normal ranges at 39.2 pg/ml and 4.63 pg/ml, respectively. It is probable that these humoral factors were partially responsible for the paraneoplastic syndromes induced by the cutaneous SCC with metastasis in the present case.
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keywords = macrophage
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10/385. Immunohistochemical detection of parathyroid hormone-related protein in a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma causing humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy.

    Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy is a cancer-related hypercalcemia caused by production of humoral factors by malignant cells in patients without bone metastases. Squamous cell carcinomas are the tumors most frequently associated with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy, and parathyroid hormone-related protein is the main humoral factor implicated. In spite of the fact that normal keratinocytes produce parathyroid hormone-related protein, it is highly unusual for patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the skin to present with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. We present a well-documented case of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma complicated by hypercalcemia in a patient with high levels of plasma parathyroid hormone-related protein and immunohistochemical evidence of high parathyroid hormone-related protein production by the tumoral cells.
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