Cases reported "Hypercalcemia"

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1/100. Documented hyperparathyroidism of thirty-six years' duration.

    The fascinating history of the first Memorial Hospital patient who was diagnosed as having hyperparathyroidism is reviewed. The illness presented as a cystic mass in a femur in 1929, which was treated with radiation. When the patient was first seen at Memorial Hospital in 1931, the diagnosis of osteitis fibrosa cystica was made; serum calcium was 14 mg/100 ml. In 1932, 6 years after Mandl performed the first parathyroidectomy ever for osteitis fibrosa cystica, this patient's neck was explored, and a right hemithyroidectomy was done, with removal of two normal parathyroid glands. The parathyroid tumor was finally located and partially removed in 1937 after a second failure at neck exploration in 1936. Correspondence between Dr. Edward D. Churchill at the massachusetts General Hospital and Dr. Bradley Coley at Memorial Hospital indicated the concern at that time about uncontrollable tetany, which had been fatal in some contemporary cases and which had led to the practice of only partially removing the tumor. Following this, the patient was observed with documented hypercalcemia and chemical evidence of hyperparathyrodism until age 79. The physical and chemical abnormalities over the years up to and including her last exam are presented. The case is important not only from the historical viewpoint, but because it lends a perspective to long-term parathyroid disease, which is becoming less appreciated in this day of the routine serum calcium by SMA-12 screening. The question of partial parathyroidectomy for adenoma or hyperplasia is reviewed, and the question of observation of patients with mild hypercalcemia who probably have parathyroid tumors is discussed.
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2/100. Acute extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage: case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage and review the signs and symptoms of this condition. methods: We report a case of extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and present an overview of previously reported cases. RESULTS: A 48-year-old woman with documented primary hyperparathyroidism, who was awaiting surgical intervention, had acute onset of a neck mass, neck pain, and dysphagia. She was found to have sustained a spontaneous extracapsular hemorrhage of a parathyroid adenoma. hypercalcemia persisted, and she subsequently underwent curative parathyroidectomy for the primary hyperparathyroidism. We also identified 15 previously reported cases of extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage and summarized the most common manifestations-most notably, a neck mass or swelling, ecchymoses of the neck and chest, dysphagia, neck pain, hoarseness, and dyspnea. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of the potential for occurrence of extracapsular parathyroid hemorrhage in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. When this condition occurs, severe hypercalcemia or acute hypocalcemia may be present. hypercalcemia is often persistent; however, autoinfarction of the parathyroid adenoma is possible.
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3/100. Familial isolated parathyroid adenoma in a consanguineous family.

    The 23-year-old Caucasian male propositus presented with symptomatic hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia and normocalciuria for 2 months. His 29-year-old brother had undergone an operation for recurrent parathyroid adenoma at age 26 and 28. No other member of the family was affected. His father and mother were second-degree relatives. Laboratory studies showed primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), while the remaining endocrine studies and genetic testing for multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 and 2A were normal. technetium-cardiolite scintigraphy and ultrasound scans revealed a parathyroid mass at the left lower neck. Apart from bilateral hearing loss due to gentamicin treatment as a pre-term child, the patient was in of good health. Signs or symptoms of other endocrinopathies were absent. The patient was referred for parathyroidectomy with subsequent autotransplantation of the remaining glands into his sternocleidomastoid muscle. Histological examination revealed an adenoma with oncocytic differentiation, similar to that seen in his brother. The disease may follow a recessive mode of inheritance or may be due to a dominant germ-cell mutation in one of the parents. The presented case may ultimately help in elucidating the molecular genetic basis of this rare form of pHPT.
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4/100. Ectopic primary hyperparathyroidism.

    OBJECTIVE: To review an unusual case of ectopic primary hyperparathyroidism. methods: We present a case report, including longitudinal results of laboratory studies, and comment on the difficulties with standard imaging techniques, interpretation of parathyroid pathologic findings, and use of invasive localization techniques. RESULTS: A 74-year-old woman underwent repeated assessments because of hypercalcemia. When standard parathyroid 99mTc sestamibi imaging was negative for adenoma and initial surgical exploration of the neck and removal of 3' parathyroid glands were unsuccessful in correcting the hyperparathyroidism, the ectopic adenoma was ultimately localized on an extended-field 99mTc sestamibi scan in the region of the right dome of the diaphragm. The localization was confirmed by selective venous sampling and angiography. The ectopic parathyroid adenoma was embolized, and 1 month later, the serum calcium level was normal. CONCLUSION: Ectopic lesions should be considered when standard imaging techniques are nonrevealing and standard neck exploration fails to disclose a parathyroid adenoma in a patient with persistent hypercalcemia. Selective venous sampling and angiography can assist in localization of ectopic parathyroid adenomas.
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5/100. Parathyromatosis as cause of recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism: a cytologic diagnosis.

    Parathyromatosis is a rare cause of hyperparathyroidism. It can be divided into two types: primary and secondary. The pathologic lesion consists of multiple small nodules of hypercellular parathyroid tissue strewn in soft tissue (fat, skeletal muscle, fibrous tissue) of the neck. We present a case of parathyromatosis occurring in a patient with recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism 4 yr after parathyroidectomy. The diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively by fine-needle aspiration of one of several neck masses.
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6/100. Metachronous primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma and a subsequent carcinoma: report of a case.

    An extremely rare case of metachronous primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) due to a parathyroid adenoma and subsequent carcinoma with local lymphatic spread is presented herein. A 55-year-old woman was operated on for a parathyroid adenoma in the right inferior gland. Thirteen years after the first operation, she was again hospitalized for hypercalcemia and the presence of a hard mass in the right anterior neck region. Exploratory surgery and a histological examination of the resected tumor provided evidence of a parathyroid neoplasm in the right superior gland but the malignancy was equivocal. Postoperatively, her serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level remained at 1.5-fold the upper limit of the normal range, and hypercalcemia again gradually developed. The results of higher positive rates by Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining and an aneuploid pattern by a flow cytometric analysis of the second neoplasm were consistent with a histological diagnosis of carcinoma, and she therefore underwent further surgery. A radical neck dissection revealed two lymph node metastases which were both successfully removed. The postoperative serum PTH and calcium levels then returned to within the normal ranges. These findings indicate the usefulness of Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining and a flow cytometric analysis for differentiating malignant lesions from benign parathyroid lesions, and the importance of surgically treating cases limited to local regions without distant metastasis.
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7/100. hypercalcemia induced by parathyroid hormone-related peptide after treatment of carcinoma.

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a rare cause of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. This paraneoplastic syndrome is usually one of the presenting symptoms of the disease. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity that presumably elaborated parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-rP) and caused hypercalcemia only after radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
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8/100. An unusual cause of hypercalcemia in polycythemia vera: parathyroid adenoma.

    In this paper we describe a patient with polycythemia vera (PV), who presented with hypercalcemia due to a parathyroid adenoma. In November 1999, the patient was admitted to our hospital with meteorism and constipation. Her physical examination revealed plethora and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory data revealed hyperparathyroidism in addition to PV: Rbc 8 x 10(6)/mm3, Hct 63.7%, serum calcium 13.4 mg/dl, serum phosphorus 1.2 mg/dl, albumin 4.25 mg/dl, and alkaline phophatase activity 433 U/l. Intact parathyroid hormone level (iPTH) was 376 pg/ml (n.v.12-72 pg/ml). Twenty-four hour urinary calcium excretion was higher than normal (900 mg). A parathyroid adenoma was detected with Tc-99m sesta-MIBI scanning under the left lobe of the thyroid gland and an ultrasonographic examination of the neck also supported the diagnosis. The patient was recommended for surgery. The histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Postoperatively, iPTH dropped to 53.4 pg/ml at the 15 th minute and to 33.5 pg/ml at the first hour. The calcium level was 7.5 mg/dl one hour after the operation. Five days later, Hct was 40.8%. This case represents a rare association between PV and primary hyperparathyroidism, and may provide evidence for a causal link between PTH and polycythemia vera in our patient. In conclusion, this case indicates that the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia and polycythemia vera should also include the possibility of a parathyroid tumor in addition to malignancy.
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9/100. Giant mediastinal parathyroid adenoma with hypercalcemia.

    Parathyroid disease is uncommon, but when found it is always of interest to the physician. Most patients with parathyroid disease also have hypercalcemia. Benign adenomatous disease is the most frequent surgical parathyroid lesion seen. Most of these lesions occur in the neck and are usually <2 cm in diameter. We report the case of a 50-year-old patient with familial neurofibromatosis, a serum calcium of 19 mg/dl, nephrocalcinosis, and renal failure. Evaluation revealed a large (5.7 x 4.5 x 2.9-cm) mediastinal adenoma. At resection, the tumor weighed 39.5 g. Symptomatology rapidly improved postoperatively.
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10/100. Non-autonomy of parathyroid hormone secretion in acute primary hyperparathyroidism.

    A patient with acute primary hyperparathyroidism treated with mithramycin preoperatively, underwent neck exploration and two enlarged parathyroid glands were excised: one huge adenoma (6g) and another smaller gland. Mithramycin was administered preoperatively to lower life-threatening hypercalcaemia, and parathyroid slices from the huge adenoma removed at surgery were submitted in vitro to various calcium concentrations in the media to determine the influence of calcium on parathyroid adenoma secretory pattern in acute primary hyperparathyroidism. Mithramycin induced a significant decline in calcium levels and significant elevations of calciotrophic hormones (intact PTH, mid-region specific PTH, calcitonin and calcitriol). Significant suppression in PTH output in vitro was achieved by increasing calcium levels in the media. These results exclude autonomous PTH secretion (non-calcium dependent) as a possible aetiology of acute primary hyperparathyroidism. We suggest that a sudden increase in the set-point of the diseased parathyroid cells in the presence of a huge cell mass accounts, in large part, for both the marked hypercalcaemia and elevated PTH levels in this patient.
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