Cases reported "Hypercalcemia"

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1/8. hyperparathyroidism and pregnancy: case report and review.

    In pregnant women with symptomatic hyperparathyroidism, parathyroidectomy should be undertaken during the second trimester. We feel that the woman who is initially diagnosed well into the third trimester should be treated medically unless the hypercalcemia worsens or other complications occur. Since the treatment of asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism itself is controversial, it is even more difficult to define the treatment plan for an asymptomatic pregnant patient who has primary hyperparathyroidism. However, a recent consensus panel recommended that young patients with asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism be treated surgically. Accordingly, we believe that the asymptomatic pregnant patient should also be treated surgically, preferably in the second trimester. Whether a patient is treated medically or surgically in these situations, the pregnancy should be considered high-risk. The neonate should be monitored carefully for signs of hypocalcemia or impending tetany. If the mother is treated medically to term (or if spontaneous or elective abortion occurs), the mother should be monitored for hyperparathyroid crisis postpartum. Sudden worsening of hypercalcemia can result from the loss of the placenta (active placental calcium transport may be somewhat protective) and dehydration. Finally, every effort should be made to make the definitive diagnosis early in pregnancy in order to initiate optimal management. The diagnosis should be suspected during pregnancy if the following conditions exist: appropriate clinical signs or symptoms (especially nephrolithiasis or pancreatitis), hyperemesis beyond the first trimester, history of recurrent spontaneous abortions/stillbirths or neonatal deaths, neonatal hypocalcemia or tetany, or a total serum calcium concentration greater than 10.1 mg/dL (2.52 mmol/L) or 8.8 mg/dL (2.2 mmol/L) during the second or third trimester, respectively.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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2/8. Metastatic pulmonary calcification in sarcoidosis.

    A patient with sarcoidosis with elevated 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin d levels, hypercalcemia, nephrolithiasis, and moderate azotemia is presented because of development of metastatic pulmonary calcification which was diagnosed by radioisotope scanning and tissue biopsy.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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3/8. Acute primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Acute primary hyperparathyroidism is an unusual form of primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by life-threatening hypercalcemia. Forty-three cases reported in the literature since 1974 are reviewed, along with five new cases. The average age of the patients was 55 (27 to 82), with an even distribution between men and women. Marked hypercalcemia (17.5 /- 2.1 mg/dl) was accompanied by parathyroid hormone levels 20 times normal. Virtually all patients had symptoms. Hyperparathyroid bone disease occurred in 53 percent of patients; even more (69 percent) had nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis. Combined renal and skeletal involvement was seen in 50 percent. Only three deaths were recorded. The pathophysiology of the acute hyperparathyroid state is unknown but appears to consist of uncontrolled parathyroid hormone secretion followed by cycles of hypercalcemia, polyuria, dehydration, reduced renal function, and worsening hypercalcemia. These features of acute primary hyperparathyroidism are compared with the features reported in the literature antedating multichannel screening, and with the features of the common form of primary hyperparathyroidism. Clinical guidelines by which the diagnosis may be suspected are also reviewed.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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4/8. hypercalcemia and nephrolithiasis provoked by serum phosphorus reduction in a patient with chronic renal failure and sarcoidosis.

    A patient with sarcoidosis and chronic renal failure was treated for hyperphosphatemia with aluminum hydroxide. The subsequent fall in serum phosphorus was followed by the development of hypercalcemia and nephrolithiasis. Corticosteroid therapy normalized the serum calcium and halted the progression of the nephrolithiasis, but did not improve renal function. hyperphosphatemia may have blocked the expression of sarcoid hypercalcemia in the patient. The mechanism is unclear but inhibition of the synthesis or action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D may have been involved. Reduction of serum phosphorus may lead to severe hypercalcemia in some patients with sarcoidosis.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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5/8. Parathyroid adenoma found by vertebral vein sampling.

    We report on a 33-year-old man with hypercalcemia and recurrent nephrolithiasis, who underwent the first neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism on September 27, 1973. No tumor was found and bilateral upper normal parathyroid glands were removed. However, hypercalcemia persisted postoperatively. Selective venous sampling for radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone 5 years later revealed a sharp unilateral gradient in the right vertebral vein. On November 2, 1978 the second neck exploration was performed and a right lower parathyroid adenoma was removed from the right lateral wall of the esophagus. Postoperatively, the serum calcium level decreased to 8.8 to 9.3 mg./dl. and convalescence was uneventful. In this case the pathway of parathyroid venous effluent might have been changed by the previous neck exploration and probably drained anomalously through the vertrbral vein. Selective venous sampling for radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone should include samplings from the vertebral veins as well as the thyroid veins, especially in cases with 1 or more previous neck explorations.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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6/8. nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis due to subcutaneous fat necrosis with hypercalcemia in two full-term asphyxiated neonates: sonographic findings.

    subcutaneous fat necrosis leading to hypercalcemia is rare but well documented in asphyxiated neonates. This paper presents two such neonates in whom sonography revealed the development of nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The kidneys had initially been shown to be normal sonographically. In one infant, nephrocalcinosis developed as increasing echogenicity of the medullary pyramids. In the other, increased echogenicity of the renal cortex of uncertain cause developed together with nephrolithiasis. These sonographic appearances have not been described previously in this entity.
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ranking = 6
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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7/8. Parathyroid adenoma in northern nigeria.

    A middle-aged farmer and a female student presented with osteitis fibrosa cystica with nephrocalcinosis in the former and nephrolithiasis in the latter due to primary hyperparathyroidism. Hypercalcaemia was present in both cases and neck exploration revealed a large solitary parathyroid adenoma which was excised. Because primary hyperparathyroidism is less common in tropical countries doctors may be less familiar with the early manifestations of the disease. The number of patients thus undiagnosed and untreated is unknown.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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8/8. Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma.

    Most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism are due to either a parathyroid adenoma or to parathyroid hyperplasia. Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare cause of hyperparathyroidism. Although the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma is usually established based on pathological criteria of vascular and capsular invasion, some clinical and biochemical features differentiate it from benign forms of hyperparathyroidism. We report the case of a middle-aged woman with a long standing history of nephrolithiasis, who presented with a palpable neck mass, weight loss, severe hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia, as well as very high serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone. Surgical neck exploration revealed a large tumor that invaded trachea, esophagus, reccurrent laryngeal nerve, right apical pleura and right carotid artery. Pathological examination confirmed the invasive nature of the tumor. Along with the case report, we review the literature and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic options of this rare condition.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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