Cases reported "Hypercapnia"

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1/8. Hypercapnic respiratory failure and partial upper airway obstruction during high frequency oscillatory ventilation in an adult burn patient.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of severe hypercapnic respiratory failure in an adult burn patient and to describe our clinical problem solving approach during support with an unconventional mode of mechanical ventilation. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 19-yr-old male with smoke inhalation and flame burns to 50% total body surface area was admitted to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre. High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) was initiated on day three for treatment of severe hypoxemia. By day four, the patient met consensus criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome. On day nine, alveolar ventilation was severely compromised and was characterized by hypercapnea (PaCO(2) 136 mmHg) and acidosis (pH 7.10). Attempts to improve CO(2) elimination by a decrease in the HFOV oscillatory frequency and an increase in the amplitude pressure failed. An intentional orotracheal tube cuff leak was also ineffective. A 6.0-mm nasotracheal tube was inserted into the supraglottic hypopharynx to palliate presumed expiratory upper airway obstruction. After nasotracheal tube placement, an intentional cuff leak of the orotracheal tube improved ventilation (PaCO(2) 81 mmHg) and relieved the acidosis (pH 7.30). The improvement in ventilation (with normal oxygen saturation) was sustained until the patient's death from multiple organ dysfunction four days later. CONCLUSION: During HFOV in burn patients, postresuscitation edema of the supraglottic upper airway may cause expiratory upper airway obstruction. The insertion of a nasotracheal tube, combined with an intentional orotracheal cuff leak may improve alveolar ventilation during HFOV in such patients.
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2/8. Massive subcutaneous emphysema and hypercarbia: complications of carbon dioxide absorption during extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal laparoscopic surgery--case studies.

    The laparoscopic approach to surgery is being used with greater frequency as our healthcare system continues to strive for shorter hospital stays and improved postoperative patient recovery times. However, laparoscopy is not without potential complications. This article presents 2 patient case studies. The cases differ in surgical technique. One patient's laparoscopic surgery involved an extraperitoneal approach. The second patient's surgery involved an intraperitoneal approach. Massive subcutaneous emphysema developed in both patients. The phenomenon of subcutaneous emphysema associated with laparoscopic surgery will be defined and discussed.
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3/8. Uncontrollable high-frequency tachypnea in a case of unilateral medial medullary infarct.

    BACKGROUND: Medullary infarcts can be associated with breathing disorders that usually consist in central hypoventilation. PATIENT: We describe the case of a 54-year-old man, fully conscious, presenting with an uncontrollable high frequency and shallow tachypnea (95/min) at the onset of a unilateral medial medullary infarct. This disorder disappeared under inspiratory pressure support mechanical ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Respiratory drive (respiratory rate, occlusion pressure, and mean inspiratory flow), efferent pathway (transcranial and cervical magnetic stimulation), and afferent pathway (response to CO(2) and to lung inflation) were investigated. The respiratory drive was increased. The phrenic nerve conduction time was normal. The sensitivity of the central pattern generator to lung inflation and to CO(2) was preserved. The territory of the infarct was supplied by the spinal anterior artery. CONCLUSIONS: An extremely rapid and shallow tachypnea due to the increase in respiratory drive can be associated with unilateral medullary infarction.
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keywords = high frequency, frequency
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4/8. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation and an interventional lung assist device to treat hypoxaemia and hypercapnia.

    A male patient accidentally aspirated paraffin oil when performing as a fire-eater. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (Pa(o(2))/Fi(o(2)) ratio 10.7 kPa) developed within 24 h. Conventional pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) with high airway pressures and low tidal volumes failed to improve oxygenation. hypercapnia (Pa(co(2)) 12 kPa) with severe acidosis (pH<7.20) ensued. Treatment with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and a higher adjusted airway pressure (35 cm H(2)O) improved the Pa(o(2))/Fi(o(2)) ratio within 1 h from 10.7 to 22.9 kPa, but the hypercapnia and acidosis continued. Stepwise reduction of the mean airway pressure (26 cm H(2)O), and oscillating frequencies (3.5 Hz), as well as increasing the oscillating amplitudes (95 cm H(2)O) resulted in an unchanged Pa(co(2)), but oxygenation worsened. The new pumpless extracorporeal interventional lung assist device (ILA, NovaLung, Hechingen, germany) was therefore used for carbon dioxide elimination to enable a less aggressive ventilation strategy. Pa(co(2)) normalized after initiation of ILA. HFOV with a mean airway pressure of 32 cm H(2)O was maintained, but with a higher oscillatory frequency (9 Hz) and very low oscillatory amplitude (25 cm H(2)O). After 6 days, the patient was transferred to a conventional ventilator, and ILA was discontinued after 13 days without complications.
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5/8. Effects of respiratory gases on the frequency and duration of obstructive apneic episodes in a patient with the sleep apnea-hypersomnolence syndrome.

    We studied the effects of hyperoxia and hypercapnia on obstructive apneic episodes (OAE) in a 39-year-old male with the sleep apnea and hypersomnolence syndrome (SAHS). While inspiring room air, our patient spent approximately 50% of his non-REM sleep time in OAE. When the inspired gas was changed to 100% oxygen, the frequency of the OAE decreased slightly, but a statistically significant increase in the duration of each episode was noted. Additionally, a CO2 rebreathe under hyperoxic conditions was carried out during non-REM sleep; no OAE were noted during this rebreathe. Therefore, this latter observation suggests that hypercapnia under hyperoxic conditions may reduce the frequency of OAE in patients with the SAHS.
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6/8. Permissive hypercapnia with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and one-lung isolation for intraoperative management of lung resection in a patient with multiple bronchopleural fistulae.

    We report the use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in the operating room during repair of multiple bronchopleural fistulae in a 9-year-old boy. In addition, we used principles of permissive hypercapnia to further minimize barotrauma. There were no cardiovascular consequences due to either the high-frequency ventilation or the permissive hypercapnia. Our goals in employing this strategy were to minimize barotrauma, minimize gas flow through the fistulae, and optimize the surgical results.
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7/8. Relief of protracted hypercarbia by high-frequency oscillatory ventilator in a young infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Conventional ventilators have their limitations in management of certain conditions such as protracted hypercarbia in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Although high-frequency ventilators (HFV) may be less effective in patients with lung diseases complicated by high airway resistance, such as BPD, high-frequency oscillatory ventilators (HFOV) can still provide an alternative treatment of choice due to its property of active exhalation, in addition to its tidal volume being less than dead space and its minute ventilation being more dependent on tidal volume. This report describes 3 episodes of successful relief of protracted hypercarbia in a young infant with BPD using HFOV after failure of conventional ventilatory therapy.
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8/8. Treatment of acute respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary oedema with bi-level positive airway pressure by nasal mask.

    We report the successful outcome of first-line intervention of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in four patients, three of whom had hypercapnic acute respiratory failure (ARF) and one hypoxaemic ARF, secondary to pulmonary oedema. The clinical condition showed rapid improvement and the NPPV, performed together with aggressive medical treatment, was effective in decreasing the respiratory frequency, and in correcting gas exchange abnormalities within the first 3 h. The average duration of nasal mask ventilation was 11 h (range 6-15 h). The patients were weaned, following ARF, by removing the ventilator whenever inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) was 5 cmH2O. NPPV was applied, by nasal mask, using a bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) delivering pressure support ventilation (PSV). We conclude that application of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation may be effective in correcting gas exchange abnormalities, in relieving respiratory distress and, perhaps, in avoiding endotracheal intubation in selected patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to reversible medical condition such as pulmonary oedema.
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