Cases reported "Hypercapnia"

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1/2. Near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler in monohemispheric stroke.

    We simultaneously performed near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) to evaluate the effects of hypercapnia as well as of scalp ischemia on the blood flow at two different depth levels within the brain and of the scalp vessels. A decrease in the backscattered light intensity, meaning an increment of blood volume, was detected at the end of hypercapnia in all healthy subjects. This decrement was partly masked by ischemia in the cutaneous vessels. In 2 patients with a monohemispheric lesion in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory, an increase in NIRS response was found in the healthy hemisphere, while in the stroke side the CO2-induced changes were negligible. TCD data showed a similar increment of blood flow velocity to the hypercapnia in both hemispheres, with no differences between the affected and normal side in 1 patient, whereas in the second one, no increment was observed on the affected side, probably due to internal carotid artery stenosis. The two methods nicely integrate: TCD mainly tests subcortical changes in the MCA flow, while NIRS is exquisitely sensitive to cortical arterioles and capillary blood flow modifications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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2/2. An unusual cause of tracheal stenosis.

    PURPOSE: To report a large chronic tracheal foreign body, causing tracheal stenosis in an 11-yr-old girl. CLINICAL FEATURES: The history was suggestive of obstructive airways disease with secondary bronchiectasis. Physical findings were crepitations and rhonchi all over the chest. Blood gases were normal. Chest X-ray showed bronchiectasis and a ventilation perfusion scan identified a tracheo-esophageal fistula. During anesthesia to confirm this, intubation and ventilation were difficult because of tracheal stenosis. The hypoventilation resulted in severe hypercarbia and acidosis. A subsequent CT scan showed a stenosis of 2 mm diameter and 1 cm length in the middle third of trachea, bronchiectasis, and an air filled pocket between the trachea and esophagus. PFT showed a severe obstruction. Antitubercular treatment which was started on the presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous stenosis and tracheoesophageal fistula caused a delay with deterioration of patient from intermittent dyspnea to orthopnea with severe hypecarbia and acidosis. The anesthetic management of the tracheal reconstruction was difficult due to her moribund condition even after medical treatment, the short length of the trachea above the obstruction, its severity and lack of resources for alternative techniques. A large foreign body was found lying obliquely in the trachea dividing it into an anterior narrow airway mimicking a stenosed trachea, and a wider posterior blind passage. CONCLUSION: The anesthetic consequences were peculiar to the unexpected etiology of the stenosis and poor general condition of the patient. Minor details like the tracheal tube bevel and ventilatory pattern became vitally important.
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ranking = 7701.8243695969
keywords = tracheal stenosis, stenosis
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