Cases reported "hyperemesis gravidarum"

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1/94. Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by hyperemesis gravidarum.

    A report is presented on a patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy secondary to hyperemesis gravidarum. The 25-year-old female presented 11 weeks into pregnancy with prolonged vomiting. Neurological examination 8 weeks later demonstrated obtunded sensations, nystagmus and ataxia of gait. MR imaging revealed bilateral lesions in the mediodorsal nuclei of thalami, in the hypothalamus and in the periaqueductal gray matter (1). The neurological signs and the MRI findings pointed to a diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The patient was treated with intramuscular vitamin B1 followed by oral thiamine until the end of pregnancy. The subsequent course of the pregnancy was uncomplicated, and resulted in the delivery of a healthy 2970 g male infant. A review of the literature published during the last 30 years revealed an additional 20 cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by hyperemesis gravidarum. Only half of these pregnancies resulted in the birth of a normal infant. ( info)

2/94. Enteral nutrition by percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy in severe hyperemesis gravidarum: a report of two cases.

    We describe the first two cases in which percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy was used as a means to provide enteral nutrition in severe hypermesis gravidarum. The use of this method of enteral access provided an alternative to parenteral nutrition, was well tolerated, cost-effective and had no major complications. In both cases the nutritional goal for mothers as well as appropriate fetal growth and development were achieved. ( info)

3/94. molar pregnancy presenting with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    nausea and vomiting are common complaints in pregnancy, occurring in more than 50% of pregnant women. Occasionally, the vomiting becomes severe and persistent enough to develop into the syndrome called hyperemesis gravidarum and sometimes requires hospitalization. A 20-year-old woman presented with hyperemesis gravidarum, which was later found to be associated with a molar pregnancy. hyperemesis gravidarum is reported to occur in as many as 26% of molar pregnancies. Increases in the level of serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin may be the mechanism of hyperemesis gravidarum in molar pregnancy. Hyperthyroid states linked to molar pregnancy may further exacerbate hyperemesis gravidarum. physicians should be aware of this possibility of molar pregnancy in all patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and be familiar with the appropriate management to monitor and prevent an often-fatal trophoblastic neoplasm. ( info)

4/94. helicobacter pylori infection and persistent hyperemesis gravidarum.

    hyperemesis gravidarum is the most severe spectrum of gastrointestinal complaints in pregnant women. Our purpose is to describe an association of helicobacter pylori with hyperemesis gravidarum. Three pregnant women are described with the working diagnoses of hyperemesis gravidarum unresponsive to standard therapy. The medical management used to treat helicobacter pylori in these women are elaborated. The persistence of the symptomatology and/or hematemesis resulted in helicobacter pylori testing of these women. A 2-week course of antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor or H2 receptor antagonist resulted in resolution of the hyperemesis. A discussion of the incidence, diagnosis, and management of helicobacter pylori in pregnancy is described. When the symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum are persistent into the second trimester, active peptic ulcer disease from helicobacter pylori should be included in the differential diagnoses. ( info)

5/94. Clinical course of a pituitary macroadenoma in the first trimester of pregnancy: probable lymphocytic hypophysitis.

    Recent findings revealed that the clinical features of lymphocytic hypophysitis are more complicated than previously thought. It is rarely described in the first trimester of pregnancy and signs of meningeal irritation are infrequently reported. In this study, a pregnant woman in her first trimester of pregnancy with clinical and radiological characteristics of a pituitary macroadenoma is described. The patient's pituitary profile revealed a relatively low prolactin for her stage of pregnancy. Unusual findings were neck stiffness associated with headache, nausea and vomiting. She was treated conservatively. Spontaneous complete resolution of the pituitary mass in the postpartum period led us to conclude that the correct diagnosis should be hypophysitis. Hypophysitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary mass presenting in early stages of pregnancy with symptoms mimicking hyperemesis gravidarum and/or meningeal irritation. ( info)

6/94. Medical hypnosis for hyperemesis gravidarum.

    hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnancy is a serious condition that is often resistant to conservative treatments. Medical hypnosis is a well-documented alternative treatment. This article reviews the empirical studies of medical hypnosis for treating hyperemesis gravidarum, explains basic concepts, and details the treatment mechanisms. The importance of a thorough differential diagnosis and appropriate referrals is stressed. The article presents three case studies to illustrate the efficacy of this treatment approach. It is suggested that medical hypnosis should be considered as an adjunctive treatment option for those women with hyperemesis gravidarum. It is also stressed that medical hypnosis can be used to treat common morning sickness that is experienced by up to 80 percent of pregnant women. Its use could allow a more comfortable pregnancy and healthier fetal development, and could prevent cases that might otherwise proceed to full-blown hyperemesis gravidarum. ( info)

7/94. Transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum: a sheep in wolf's clothing.

    BACKGROUND: Transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum (THHG) is a self-limiting hyperthyroidism occurring in the context of hyperemesis gravidarum. methods: A literature search of medline was undertaken, and a case report of a woman with THHG in pregnancy is described. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Because thyroid function tests cannot distinguish graves disease from THHG, the diagnosis of THHG rests largely on the concurrent development of hyperemesis and hyperthyroidism and the absence of signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism before and during pregnancy. THHG might be responsible for 40% to 70% of thyroid function abnormalities in pregnancy. Both the thyroid function abnormalities and hyperemesis are related to elevated levels of human chorionic gonadotropin. THHG resolves by 18 weeks of pregnancy without sequelae. No treatment is required. diagnosis of THHG by the primary care provider can prevent unnecessary treatment or referral for specialty care. ( info)

8/94. mycobacterium chelonae sepsis associated with long-term use of an intravenous catheter for treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Of the 1-2% of pregnant women who develop hyperemesis, the great majority are managed successfully with antiemetics and, when needed, short courses of parenteral medications. Only rarely will chronic parenteral therapy be necessary. Such therapy may be associated with significant complications. CASE: A 38-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 1, induced abortion 1, with a history of hyperemesis in her first pregnancy, developed recurrent hyperemesis at 9 weeks' gestation. After four admissions and a 5.45-kg weight loss at 12 weeks' gestation, a Groshong catheter was placed in the left subclavian vein. The patient was then managed with home droperidol infusions and intravenous hydration as needed. At 30 weeks' gestation she developed tender, erythematous nodules over her legs and right arm. culture from a biopsy of the nodules grew mycobacterium chelonae, as did the catheter tip. M chelonae is a ubiquitous, opportunistic, nontuberculous (atypical) mycobacterium. The patient responded slowly to clarithromycin. At 37 weeks she delivered a healthy, 4,080-g, male infant. Three months postpartum the nodules continued to resolve slowly on clarithromycin. CONCLUSION: When chronic parenteral therapy is required for hyperemesis gravidarum, attention must be given to potential complications. Indwelling catheters should be removed as soon as possible. ( info)

9/94. hyperemesis gravidarum with gastric carcinoma.

    A 24-year-old multiparous female presented with a diagnosis of hyperemesis gravidarum and was found to have a gastric carcinoma. She underwent a gastric resection for carcinoma of the stomach and is alive and well 2 years after gastrectomy. x-rays, gastroscopy, and surgery were done while she was pregnant. ( info)

10/94. midwifery co-management of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    hyperemesis gravidarum is an infrequent, yet significant, maternal complication of pregnancy. Beginning with the frequently experienced nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, symptoms can progress to hyperemesis, a debilitating condition affecting maternal and fetal well-being. A basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease process and an awareness of the therapeutic interventions that are available will facilitate midwifery planning for either the collaborative care or the potential referral to medical management, both of which may be required with this clinical entity. The diagnosis and initial management of hyperemesis is within the purview of midwifery care. As certain critical features of duration and severity evolve, medical collaboration and ultimate hospitalization may be required. For those few individuals requiring the most intense level of care, the critical support and encouragement afforded by midwifery participation will contribute to timely resolution of this debilitating condition. This article discusses the continuum from differential diagnosis to ultimate care of the woman who has excessive nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Collaboration among health care providers will allow all to exercise their respective skills in achieving the optimum in safe therapy and support for their patients. ( info)
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