Cases reported "Hyperglycemia"

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1/93. Blood brain barrier destruction in hyperglycemic chorea in a patient with poorly controlled diabetes.

    A case of hemichorea in a patient with poorly controlled diabetes is reported. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an unusual homogeneous high-intensity area in the corpus striatum. Of interest in the case was the fact that the globus pallidus, which was enhanced with gadolinium at the onset of hemichorea, showed homogeneous high-intensity on a subsequent T1-weighted image. This indicated that blood brain barrier destruction preceded the signal intensity change in the basal ganglia. As far as the authors could determine, this is the first reported case showing such enhancement during the course of diabetic hemichorea.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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2/93. theophylline intoxication mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis in a child.

    A 5-year-old boy presented with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting of blood. Twelve hours after admission, "diabetic ketoacidosis" was diagnosed on the basis of elevated glycaemia, glycosuria, ketonuria and a low bicarbonate blood level, which led to treatment with fluids and regular insulin infusion. Over a 36-hour period, insulin was progressively decreased and finally stopped because of the rapid fall and normalization of blood glucose concentration. Drug poisoning was suspected on the basis of persistent tachycardia in the absence of other signs of dehydration. Salicylate intoxication was excluded, and theophylline was finally incriminated. This compound, used by adults in the child's home, had caused accidental theophylline poisoning, mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis. Pre-diabetic immune markers were repeatedly negative, and no diabetes has developed after four years of follow-up. Thus, the transient increase in blood glucose was not related to a pre-diabetic status. A diagnosis of masked theophylline poisoning should be considered in similar situations involving a rapid decrease of insulin requirements.
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ranking = 8
keywords = diabetic
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3/93. Post-transplant diabetic ketoacidosis--a possible consequence of immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibiting agents: a case series.

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus, a complication due to corticosteroids and the calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine and tacrolimus (FK506), is commonly regarded as a form of type-2 (adult-onset) diabetes mellitus. diabetic ketoacidosis, which requires relative insulin deficiency to impair fatty acid metabolism, is a complication of type-1 diabetes mellitus. We report three patients who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis post-transplant. All three patients presented with severe hyperglycemia, significant ketosis and metabolic acidosis of variable severity. One patient was a renal transplant recipient on a cyclosporine-based regimen. The other two patients were liver transplant recipients receiving either cyclosporine or tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Both of the liver transplant recipients were found to have moderate to high serum levels of calcineurin inhibitors on presentation. The liver recipient on cyclosporine (Neoral) had a 4 hour post-dose level of 388 ng/ml and the patient on tacrolimus was found to have a trough level of 21.2 ng/ml. Our experience suggests that post-transplant diabetes mellitus, in association with calcineurin inhibition, may result in ketoacidosis either secondary to relative beta cell dysfunction, peripheral insulin resistance, or a combination of the two effects. Post-transplant diabetes mellitus can be an atypical form of adult-onset diabetes with features of both type I and type II diabetes mellitus.
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ranking = 5
keywords = diabetic
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4/93. Status-like recurrent pilomotor seizures: case report and review of the literature.

    A diabetic 66 year old man who presented with pilomotor seizures in his right hemibody is described. The seizures recurred with an increasing frequency, leading to a status-like condition associated with Korsakoff's syndrome. An EEG was performed and several electroclinical seizures were recorded. brain MRI was negative. The patient, who was treated with carbamazepine, became seizure free after 1 week. memory and behaviour gradually returned to normal within 3 weeks. There was no further neurological episode during an 8 year follow up. Hyperosmolar, non-ketotic hyperglycaemia was considered to be the cause of the seizures. The pathophysiology of pilomotor seizures is discussed and the literature on the subject reviewed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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5/93. Refractive changes in diabetic patients during intensive glycaemic control.

    AIMS: To evaluate the clinical course and the characteristics of transient refractive error occurring during intensive glycaemic control of severe hyperglycaemia. methods: 28 eyes of patients with persistent diabetes were included in this prospective study. During the observation period, patients underwent general ophthalmological examination and A-mode scan ultrasonography was performed at each examination-at days 1, 3, and 7, and then once every week or every other week until recovery of hyperopia. RESULTS: A transient hyperopic change occurred in all patients receiving improved control after hyperglycaemia. Hyperopic change developed a mean of 3.4 (SD 2. 0) days after the onset of treatment, and reached a peak at 10.3 (6. 1) days, where the maximum hyperopic change in an eye was 1.47 (0. 87) D (range 0.50-3.75 D). Recovery of the previous refraction occurred between 14 and 84 days after the initial assessment. There was a positive correlation between the magnitude of the maximum hyperopic change and (1) the plasma glucose concentration on admission (p<0.01), (2) the HbA(1c) level on admission (p<0.005), (3) the daily rate of plasma glucose reduction over the first 7 days of treatment (p<0.001), (4) the number of days required for hyperopia to reach its peak (p<0.001), and (5) the number of days required for the development and resolution of hyperopic changes (p<0.0001). There was a negative correlation between the maximum hyperopic change of an eye and baseline value of refraction (p<0.01). During transient hyperopia, no significant changes were observed in the radius of the anterior corneal curvature, axial length, lens thickness, or depth of anterior chamber. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of transient hyperopia associated with rapid correction of hyperglycaemia is highly dependent on the rate of reduction of the plasma glucose level. A reduction of refractive index in intraocular tissues, especially in lens, appears to be responsible for this hyperopic change.
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ranking = 4
keywords = diabetic
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6/93. Exploration of motor cortex excitability in a diabetic patient with hemiballism-hemichorea.

    Hemiballism-hemichorea in older patients with hyperglycemia, associated with high signal intensity in the contralateral striatum on T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans, is now an accepted clinical entity. We present an additional patient with this disorder. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, we show that intracortical inhibition in the motor cortex contralateral to hemiballism-hemichorea is increased. This finding is discussed in the context of current models of basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical connectivity.
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ranking = 4
keywords = diabetic
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7/93. Hyperglycemic pseudorejection in the diabetic transplant patient.

    serum creatinine elevation in a stable transplant recipient most often suggests rejection of the transplant and requires further evaluation and management. In our series of juvenile diabetic patients who have received kidney transplants, we frequently have observed creatinine elevations in association with hyperglycemia. Correction of the hyperglycemia resulted in return of serum creatinine to normal levels and no rejection therapy was required. To better define this syndrome, 2,734 paired measurements of blood glucose and serum creatinine were obtained in 52 stable post-transplant diabetic patients. A mean increase in blood glucose of 100 mg. per 100 ml. was found to increase serum creatinine by 0.5 mg. per 100 ml. in these patients (r=0.93; p less than or equal to 0.001). Evidence strongly suggests that the pathogenesis of this phenomenon is not a result of a laboratory artifact due to the technique used to determine serum creatinine. The pathogenesis may be due to the increased serum osmolarity and resulting intracellular dehydration associated with hyperglycemia. Recognition of this syndrome is important to all centers participating in the care and management of the diabetic transplant recipient.
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ranking = 7
keywords = diabetic
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8/93. lipids in the proximal tubules of the kidney in diabetic coma.

    Vacuolization of the renal tubular epithelial cells (the Armanni-Ebstein lesion) associated with diabetic hyperglycemia is usually regarded as an accumulation of glycogen. In a case of death of diabetic coma, the vacuoles were stained strongly for lipids. This observation may have both clinical and therapeutic consequences, and may increase our knowledge of the metabolism in diabetes.
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ranking = 6
keywords = diabetic
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9/93. Neonatal diabetes mellitus: patient report and review of the literature.

    A female infant born at 33 weeks gestation to a gestationally diabetic mother developed apnea and respiratory distress at 6 hours of age. Laboratory investigation demonstrated persistent hyperglycemia, and the patient was treated with continuous intravenous and subsequent subcutaneous insulin therapy. Detailed laboratory investigation to reveal the etiology of hyperglycemia and further endocrine evaluation were not significant. The baby's insulin requirement has continued thereafter, and she is being followed up in an outpatient clinic still under insulin therapy at 18 months of age. Neonatal diabetes mellitus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal hyperglycemia, and it may develop in newborns born to diabetic mothers, as well as neonatal hypoglycemia. Insulin treatment with close blood glucose monitoring is essential as long as hyperglycemia persists since neonatal diabetes mellitus may be either transient or permanent and it is not possible to differentiate these two outcomes before 18 months of age.
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ranking = 2
keywords = diabetic
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10/93. Ketotic hyperglycemia and epilepsia partialis continua.

    epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) may occur during nonketotic hyperglycemia but has not been described with diabetic ketoacidosis. The authors report a patient with EPC associated with ketotic hyperglycemia. brain MRI showed two areas of abnormal signal intensity in the left precentral gyrus and in the right cerebellar hemisphere. hyperglycemia may reduce seizure threshold because of the increase in gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism and may trigger epileptic discharges.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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