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1/36. Atypical nonketotic hyperglycinemia with normal cerebrospinal fluid to plasma glycine ratio.

    The diagnosis of nonketotic hyperglycinemia is considered to depend upon the presence of increased cerebrospinal fluid glycine and an increased cerebrospinal fluid to plasma glycine ratio. We studied two siblings who have the neurologic and peripheral biochemical features of the atypical variant of nonketotic hyperglycinemia but have normal cerebrospinal fluid glycine and cerebrospinal fluid to plasma glycine ratios. The proband had reduced liver glycine cleavage system activity of 17% and 21% of mean normal values, confirmed in two independent laboratories. Her lymphoblast glycine cleavage system activity was normal. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia can be present in the absence of increased cerebrospinal fluid glycine. Measurement of liver glycine cleavage system activity is indicated when nonketotic hyperglycinemia is suggested by clinical features and peripheral glycine levels but cerebrospinal fluid glycine is normal. ( info)

2/36. Acute hydrocephalus in nonketotic hyperglycemia.

    We present four patients with typical neonatal onset non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) who developed hydrocephalus requiring shunting in early infancy. brain imaging revealed acute hydrocephalus, a megacisterna magna or posterior fossa cyst, pronounced atrophy of the white matter, and an extremely thin corpus callosum in all. The three older patients had profound developmental disabilities. This suggests that the development of hydrocephalus in NKH is an additional poor prognostic sign. ( info)

3/36. Treatment of late-onset nonketotic hyperglycinaemia: effectiveness of imipramine and benzoate.

    We report a patient with late-onset nonketotic hyperglycinaemia managed with a sequential approach to drug therapy in placebo-controlled therapeutic trials. Partial response to low-protein diet and sodium benzoate and dramatic response to imipramine are demonstrated, with parental scores on the Developmental Behavioural checklist falling from the 86th centile before treatment to normal with combined benzoate and imipramine therapy. ( info)

4/36. Effect of sodium benzoate in the treatment of atypical nonketotic hyperglycinaemia.

    A 6-month-old girl presented with hypotonia and mild psychomotor retardation. Subsequently, an atypical manifestation of a nonketotic hyperglycinaemia was diagnosed, confirmed by significantly reduced activity of the glycine cleavage system in the liver tissue. After the patient developed hypsarrhythmia and had a single cerebral seizure, treatment with both sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan was started. During the following year, the girl was free of seizures with improvement of the EEG activity and showed retarded but continuously progressing psychomotor development. At the age of 20 months she began to walk freely but had generalized muscular hypotonia and moderate mental retardation. Discontinuation of dextromethorphan medication after one year of treatment did not change the clinical and electroencephalographic status. However, after cessation of sodium benzoate therapy, epileptic activity in the EEG and behavioural changes occurred. These changes disappeared promptly after sodium benzoate therapy was reinstituted. Thus, this case of mild atypical nonketotic hyperglycinaemia with only moderate psychomotor retardation and without epilepsy benefited from treatment with sodium benzoate in terms of electroencephalographic and behavioural changes. ( info)

5/36. Transient nonketotic hyperglycinemia in an asphyxiated patient with pyridoxine-dependent seizures.

    An asphyxiated neonate with pyridoxine-dependent seizures and associated transient nonketotic hyperglycinemia is reported. Frequent seizures and their resultant hypoxic-ischemic insult may have led to the elevation of the cerebrospinal fluid glycine level in this patient. early diagnosis and treatment of pyridoxine-dependent seizures is essential for an improved neurologic outcome. ( info)

6/36. Human glycine decarboxylase gene (GLDC) and its highly conserved processed pseudogene (psiGLDC): their structure and expression, and the identification of a large deletion in a family with nonketotic hyperglycinemia.

    Mutations in the glycine decarboxylase gene (GLDC) cause nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), an in-born error of metabolism characterized by severe neurological disturbance. We have determined the structure of GLDC and of its pseudogene (psiGLDC) and studied their expression for a molecular analysis of NKH. The GLDC gene spans at least 135 kb and consists of 25 exons. All donor and acceptor sites adhere to the canonical GT-AG rule, except for the donor site of intron 21, where a variant form GC is used instead of GT. The transcription initiation site has been assigned to a residue 163 bp upstream from the translation initiation triplet by primer extension analysis. The psiGLDC gene has no intron and shares 97.5% homology with the coding region of functional GLDC, suggesting that psiGLDC is a processed pseudogene that arose from the GLDC transcript about 4-8 million years ago. rna blotting analysis has revealed that GLDC is expressed in human liver, kidney, brain, and placenta. We have also examined a patient with NKH with no detectable GLDC mRNA in his lymphoblasts. exons 1-3 of the functional GLDC gene from this patient are not amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas those from control subjects are. These results suggest a large homozygous deletion (at least 30 kb) in the patient. Furthermore, we have devised a semi-quantitative PCR to estimate the number of GLDC alleles by using psiGLDC as an internal control and have confirmed the homozygosity and heterozygosity of the deletion in the patient and his parents, respectively. Structural information of GLDC and psiGLDC should facilitate the molecular analysis of NKH. ( info)

7/36. Non-concordance of CVS and liver glycine cleavage enzyme in three families with non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH) leading to false negative prenatal diagnoses.

    We report three false negative prenatal diagnostic results, using direct measurement of glycine cleavage enzyme activity in uncultured chorionic villus tissue from 290 pregnancies at risk for non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH). Testing was done by two centres: Vancouver, canada and Lyon, france. One false negative result had activity near the lower limit of the normal range but two samples gave completely normal results well within the control range. All three pregnancies continued and the three children were born affected with NKH. Because of the first result, we now counsel that there is a grey zone of uninterpretable activity where affected and normal enzyme values overlap. Because of the other two results we now counsel that there is an approximately 1% chance of a pregnancy with a normal CVS activity resulting in an affected child. The clinical and biochemical findings in the three families are discussed. ( info)

8/36. acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruption in an infant with nonketotic hyperglycinemia.

    acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare inherited disorder characterized by zinc deficiency and a triad of dermatitis, diarrhea, and alopecia. It is an autosomal recessive condition thought to be due to the inability to absorb zinc from the gastrointestinal tract. Acquired zinc deficiency due to a variety of etiologies may produce a similar clinical picture. These causes include inadequate supply, malabsorption, and low zinc stores. In addition to zinc, deficiencies of other nutrients such as branched chain amino acids have induced an acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruption. We describe a case of a 26-month-old boy with a rare inborn error of metabolism known as nonketotic hyperglycinemia who developed an acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruption. In addition to zinc deficiency, the patient was deficient in branched chain amino acids due to a low protein diet instituted to reduce his elevated glycine levels. The rash did not respond to zinc replacement alone, and therefore is most likely a combination of amino acid and zinc deficiency. acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruptions have been described in other conditions that cause decreased serum amino acids, such as maple syrup urine disease and organic acidurias. This is the first case describing an association between acrodermatitis enteropathica and nonketotic hyperglycinemia. ( info)

9/36. In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurement of brain glycine levels in nonketotic hyperglycinemia.

    Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycine metabolism. Defective glycine cleavage causes elevated concentrations of glycine in plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. A longitudinal study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on an infant with the typical clinical picture of NKH. He was examined twice during the course of treatment with sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan. At the age of 10 months, MRI showed normal brain structure, while MRS detected a prominent glycine peak in the brain. Repeat MRS at the age of 13 months showed a small increase in glycine peak and a prominent glutamate/glutamine peak not previously detected. The MRS measurements were consistent with the slight increase in blood glycine level and the elevation in glutamine level, indicating that 1HMRS can be a valuable tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment effects in patients with NKH. ( info)

10/36. MRI in nonketotic hyperglycinaemia: case report.

    We present a girl with proven nonketotic hyperglycinaemia. The pathological findings on MRI were brain atrophy with thinning of the corpus callosum and delayed myelination of the cerebral hemispheres, particularly the parietal lobes. ( info)
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