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1/55. Prevention of recurrent pancreatitis in familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency with high-dose antioxidant therapy.

    We describe a dramatic response to antioxidant therapy in three patients with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency complicated by frequent severe episodes of pancreatitis who had failed to respond to other dietary and pharmacological measures. Antioxidant therapy may be an important advance in the management of this type of patient.
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2/55. Triglyceride-induced diabetes associated with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

    Raised plasma triglycerides (TGs) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin-resistant diabetes. We report on two sisters with extreme hypertriglyceridemia and overt diabetes, in whom surgical normalization of TGs cured the diabetes. In all of the family members (parents, two affected sisters, ages 18 and 15 years, and an 11-year-old unaffected sister), we measured oral glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique), substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry), endogenous glucose production (by the [6,6-2H2]glucose technique), and postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. In addition, GC-clamped polymerase chain reaction-amplified dna from the promoter region and the 10 coding LPL gene exons were screened for nucleotide substitution. Two silent mutations were found in the father's exon 4 (Glu118 Glu) and in the mother's exon 8 (Thr361 Thr), while a nonsense mutation (Ser447 Ter) was detected in the mother's exon 9. Mutations in exons 4 and 8 were inherited by the two affected girls. At 1-2 years after the appearance of hyperchylomicronemia, both sisters developed hyperglycemia with severe insulin resistance. Because medical therapy (including high-dose insulin) failed to reduce plasma TGs or control glycemia, lipid malabsorption was surgically induced by a modified biliopancreatic diversion. Within 3 weeks of surgery, plasma TGs and NEFA and cholesterol levels were drastically lowered. Concurrently, fasting plasma glucose levels fell from 17 to 5 mmol/l (with no therapy), while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, oxidation, and storage were all markedly improved. Throughout the observation period, plasma TG levels were closely correlated with both plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, as measured during the oral glucose tolerance test. These cases provide evidence that insulin-resistant diabetes can be caused by extremely high levels of TGs.
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keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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3/55. Acquired lipoprotein lipase deficiency associated with chronic urticaria. A new etiology for type I hyperlipoproteinemia.

    Type I hyperlipoproteinemia (type I HLP) is a rare disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by fasting chylomicronemia and reduced postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Most cases of type I HLP are due to genetic defects in the LPL gene or in its activator, the apolipoprotein CII gene. Several cases of acquired type I HLP have also been described in the course of autoimmune diseases due to the presence of circulating inhibitors of LPL. Here we report a case of type I HLP due to a transient defect of LPL activity during puberty associated with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). The absence of any circulating LPL inhibitor in plasma during the disease was demonstrated. The LPL genotype showed that the patient was heterozygous for the D9N variant. This mutation, previously described, can explain only minor defects in the LPL activity. The presence of HLP just after the onset of CIU, and the elevation of the LPL activity with remission of the HLP when the patient recovered from CIU, indicate that type I HLP was caused by CIU. In summary, we report a new etiology for type I HLP - a transient decrease in LPL activity associated with CIU and with absence of circulating inhibitors. This is the first description of this association, which suggests a new mechanism for type I HLP.
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ranking = 2.1923990312602
keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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4/55. Compound heterozygosity for a new (S259G) and a previously described (G188E) mutation in lipoprotein lipase (LpL) as a cause of chylomicronemia. Mutations in brief no. 183. Online.

    Familial chylomicronemia is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by fasting triglyceridemia and an absence of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) activity in post-heparin plasma. The disease is a result of mutation in either the lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) gene or in the apoCII gene which codes for an essential co-factor. To date, over 80 mutations in the LpL gene have been reported. The proband, a 30 month old female, presented with fasting triglycerides of 3192 mg/dl, and no detectable LpL mass or activity in post-heparin plasma. Sequencing of all of the exons and exon/intron boundaries of the LpL gene showed that she was a compound heterozygote with G-A transitions in codon 188 (G188E:GGG to GAG) generating an avall restriction site and in codon 259 (S259G:AGT to GGT) generating a bssKI site. Restriction digests confirmed the mutations and determined the incidence within the family. The father (55%LPL activity), paternal aunt (82%) and paternal grandmother (29%) were all heterozygous for the S259G mutation whilst her sister (55%), mother (73%) and maternal grandfather (45%) were heterozygous for the G188E mutation. The maternal grandmother (114%) was unaffected.
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ranking = 1.1934848839373
keywords = lipoprotein
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5/55. A compound heterozygote for a novel missense mutation (G105R) in exon 3 and a missense mutation (D204E) in exon 5 of the lipoprotein lipase gene in a Japanese infant with hyperchylomicronaemia.

    We systematically investigated the molecular defects resulting in primary lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency in a Japanese male infant (hereafter called 'the patient') with severe fasting hypertriglyceridaemia (type I hyperlipoproteinaemia). The primary LPL deficiency was diagnosed on the basis of the findings that no LPL activity was detected in post-heparin plasma (PHP) and that the immunoreactive LPL mass in PHP was less than 2% of the control level. The patient was a compound heterozygote for a novel missense mutation (G(568)GA-->AGA/Gly(105)-->Arg; G105R) in exon 3 and a missense mutation (GAC(867)-->GAG/Asp(204)-->Glu; D204E) in exon 5 of the LPL gene. The biological significance of both missense mutations was examined by an in vitro study of the expression of the mutant G105R LPL cDNA and D204E LPL cDNA in COS-1 cells. Both mutant LPLs were catalytically inactive and were barely released by heparin from the expressing COS-1 cells. These findings explain the failure to detect LPL activity and immunoreactive LPL mass in the patient's PHP. The G105R allele could be detected by digestion with the BsmAI restriction enzyme, and the D204E allele by digestion with HincII. The patient inherited the G105R allele from his mother and the D204E allele from his father. His parents were heterozygotes for the corresponding mutant allele, but normolipidaemic. The novel G105R missense mutation could not be detected by conventional analysis of single-strand conformation polymorphism, but it was identified by extensive sequencing of the entire exons and their flanking regions in the LPL gene.
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ranking = 1.1956565892916
keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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6/55. Type I hyperlipoproteinemia due to a novel loss of function mutation of lipoprotein lipase, Cys(239)-->Trp, associated with recurrent severe pancreatitis.

    lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the major enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in plasma. The purpose of this study was to examine the molecular pathogenesis of type I hyperlipoproteinemia in a patient suffering from recurrent severe pancreatitis. Apolipoprotein (apo) CII concentration was normal as well as apo CII-activated LPL in an in vitro assay. In postheparin plasma neither LPL mass nor activity was detectable, whereas hepatic lipase activity was normal. Direct sequencing of all 10 exons of the LPL gene revealed that the patient was homozygous for a hitherto unknown mutation in exon 6, Cys(239)-->Trp. The mutation prevents the formation of the second disulfide bridge of LPL, which is an essential part of the lid covering the catalytic center. Consequently, misfolded LPL is rapidly degraded within the cells, causing the absence of LPL immunoreactive protein in the plasma of this patient. In conclusion, we have identified a novel loss of function mutation in the LPL gene (Cys(239)-->Trp) of a patient with type I hyperlipoproteinemia suffering from severe recurrent pancreatitis. After initiation of heparin therapy (10,000 U/day sc), the patient experienced no more episodes of pancreatitis, although heparin therapy did not affect serum triglyceride levels.
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ranking = 2.3869697678747
keywords = lipoprotein
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7/55. lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency: a new patient homozygote for the preponderant mutation Gly188Glu in the human LPL gene and review of reported mutations: 75 % are clustered in exons 5 and 6.

    We have investigated the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene of a 2-year-old patient presenting classical features of the familial LPL deficiency including undetectable LPL activity. dna sequence analysis of exon 5 identified the patient as a homozygote for the Gly188Glu mutation, frequently involved in this disease. A review of cases of LPL deficiency with molecular study of the LPL gene showed a total number of 221 reported mutations involved in this disease. Gly188Glu was involved in 23.5 % of cases and 74.6 % of mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 6. Based on these observations, we propose a method of screening for mutations in this gene.
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ranking = 0.20542926338555
keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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8/55. A Japanese patient with lipoprotein lipase deficiency homozygous for the Gly188Glu mutation prevalent worldwide.

    We studied the molecular basis of familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency in a new Japanese kindred. The proband was a four-month-old infant with severe hyperchylomicronemia. In postheparin plasma, LPL activity was virtually absent, although LPL mass was detectable. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis showed an abnormal band with exon 5 of the LPL gene that was amplified by PCR from the proband's genomic dna. dna sequence analysis of the amplified fragment demonstrated that the proband was homozygous for a G-to-A change at nucleotide position 818 resulting in the substitution of glutamic acid for glycine at codon 188. Although this is among the first Gly188Glu mutations identified in Japanese, the missense mutation has previously been reported as a prevalent cause of familial LPL deficiency worldwide and has been proposed to have a common origin. However, dna haplotype analysis with either restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or microsatellite markers revealed that the dna haplotype of the proband was not identical to the haplotype previously reported as common to the other patients with the Gly188Glu mutation. These results add the Gly188Glu mutation to the growing list of LPL gene mutations underlying familial LPL deficiency in Japanese and indicate that the origin of the Gly188Glu mutation is not necessarily common but would be multicentric at least in part.
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ranking = 1.0021717053542
keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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9/55. Deceptive hyperbilirubinaemia in a newborn with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

    A rare case of familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency in a Chinese newborn who presented with severe hyperbilirubinaemia is described. The falsely high serum bilirubin concentration was subsequently found to be a laboratory analytical error caused by interference of optical measurement of the lipaemic serum. Hypertriglyceridaemia and chylomicronaemia could be safely and effectively controlled by a fat-restricted diet using either modified elementary milk formula fortified with protein, calories and minerals, or the commercially available special milk formula such as Monogen or Portagen. dna sequence analysis of the patient showed a Leu252Arg mutation in exon 6 of both alleles of the LPL gene. Although the parents were unrelated, both were heterozygous carriers of the same genetic defect. codon 252 in exon 6 appears to be a common and critical site of mutation in the LPL gene of Chinese, but this important association has not been recognized previously.
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10/55. No evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in a 66-yr-old chylomicronemia patient homozygous for the nonsense mutation (Tyr61-->stop) in the lipoprotein lipase gene.

    Whether chylomicronemia is atherogenic or not has yet to be determined in humans. We investigated a 66-yr-old female with severe chylomicronemia resulting from a lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency. The patient's plasma triglyceride level was approximately 2000 mg/dl. Both LPL activity and the mass of postheparin plasma in this patient were virtually absent. A nonsense mutation in exon 3 (Tyr61-->Stop) was identified in the patient's LPL gene, and a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis established that the patient was homozygous for this mutation. The patient was neither a diabetic nor a smoker. Clinically, the patient had never experienced pancreatitis or angia pectoris. An examination of her carotid, femoral and coronary arteries by ultrasonogram and electrocardiogram after exercise-tolerance testing showed no accelerated atherosclerosis. This case suggests that atherosclerosis may not occur despite massive hyperlipidemia, when LPL bridging was not present due to the absence of LPL secretion and circulating mass.
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ranking = 0.99565658929156
keywords = lipoprotein, deficiency
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