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1/94. An unusual case of stridor due to osteophytes of the cervical spine: (Forestier's disease).

    Stridor is a noisy breathing caused by compromised airway in the larynx and trachea. The causes can either be due to intrinsic or extrinsic compression. Stridor resulting from extrinsic compression due to anterior cervical osteophytes is rare. We report an unusual case of acute stridor due to an osteophytic mass in the cervical vertebrae resulting in a mechanical upper airway obstruction. The underlying pathology was Forestier's disease or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Stridor is a rare manifestation of DISH and it certainly represents the most life-threatening one. Only a few cases have been reported in the English literature and are mainly secondary to impaired function of the vocal folds, or postcricoid ulceration and oedema. We present such a case, in that stridor was the result of direct airway obstruction by the osteophytic mass and an emergency tracheostomy had to be performed to establish an airway. ( info)

2/94. Transpharyngeal approach for the treatment of dysphagia due to Forestier's disease.

    Forestier's disease (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis) is characterized by extensive spinal osteophyte formation and endo-chondral ossification of paravertebral ligaments and muscles. Dysphagia in the setting of Forestier's disease is a rare and hence often unrecognized entity. The dysphagia is due to mechanical obstruction in the initial stages and later due to inflammation and fibrosis. Most of these patients are treated conservatively in the initial stages and later by excision of osteophytes through a lateral cervical approach. We present a case of dysphagia due to cervical osteophytes in the setting of Forestier's disease causing narrowing of the pharynx. The patient was treated surgically via a peroral-transpharyngeal route with excellent results. ( info)

3/94. Awake tracheal intubation with the intubating laryngeal mask in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, otherwise known as Forestier's disease or ankylosing hyperostosis, is a relatively common condition that is distinguished from ankylosing spondylitis by the relative preservation of spinal function and the characteristic 'candle flame' lipping of the vertebrae. We report a patient with this condition and a well-recorded history of impossible intubation who presented for emergency laparotomy. The patient was intubated awake using the intubating laryngeal mask and sedation and anaesthesia were provided by a target-controlled infusion of propofol. ( info)

4/94. Chronic obstructive pneumonia caused by a vertebral body osteophyte.

    Osteophytes associated with spondylosis have been implicated as a cause of multiple extraspinal manifestations. Symptoms are more likely to occur with the large osteophytes associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. In the thoracic region, osteophytes have been reported infrequently as a cause of extraspinal complications. We report a case in which an anterior thoracic vertebral osteophyte was responsible for chronic obstructive pneumonia due to obstruction of the right main stem bronchus. The patient's condition improved considerably after surgical resection of the compressing thoracic osteophyte. ( info)

5/94. The management of dysphasia in skeletal hyperostosis.

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), or Forestier's disease, is an ossifying condition frequently encountered in otolaryngology as it affects 12-28 per cent of the adult population. This form of hyperostosis can manifest clinically with dysphagia, food impaction, hoarseness, stridor, myelopathies and other neurological problems. Judicious management of severe dysphagia proves challenging. The failure of conservative care often leaves surgery as the only option. In this report an anterolateral transcervical surgical approach to the confluent osteophytes is discussed and the value of videofluoroscopic swallow highlighted. ( info)

6/94. Dysphagia in a patient with giant osteophytes: case presentation and review of the literature.

    A patient with increasing dysphagia due to external bone compression of the oesophagus is presented. Radiographic evaluation revealed the underlying condition to be a diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis with exuberant and bumpy change within the anterior longitudinal ligament. ( info)

7/94. Simultaneous cervical diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament resulting in dysphagia or myelopathy in two geriatric North Americans.

    BACKGROUND: Cervical diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) rarely coexist in the North American population. Here, different surgical strategies were used to manage simultaneous DISH and OPLL resulting in dysphagia or myelopathy in two geriatric patients. methods: A 74-year-old male with esophageal compression and dysphagia attributed to DISH, and cord compression with myelopathy due to OPLL, was treated with a cervical laminectomy followed by anterior DISH resection. On the other hand, an 80-year-old male with asymptomatic DISH but moderate myelopathy (Nurick Grade III) secondary to OPLL required only a cervical laminectomy. RESULTS: In the first patient, dysphagia resolved within 3 months of surgery, while in the second individual, myelopathy improved to Nurick Grade I (mild myelopathy) within 6 months postoperatively. Improvement in both patients was maintained 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: While DISH and OPLL may coexist in geriatric patients, only those with dysphagia should undergo DISH resection, while others demonstrating myelopathy should have laminectomy alone. ( info)

8/94. Dysphagia due to anterior cervical osteophytes--a case report.

    Dysphagia due to osteophytes in a young person is uncommon. We present a rare case of Forestier's disease causing dysphagia in a young lady without other bony involvement. The osteophytes were surgically removed and her symptoms resolved completely. ( info)

9/94. Cervical cord injury in an elderly man with a fused spine--a case report.

    We report a case of an elderly man presenting with co-existing diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) resulting in central cord syndrome. Only three such cases have been reported co-existing with DISH. The patient recovered most of his neurological deficit through conservative management. A discussion on the radiological features of DISH co-existing with OPLL and how these differ from ankylosing spondylitis (AS) follows. ( info)

10/94. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: a case of dysphagia.

    OBJECTIVE: To present and discuss the clinical manifestations, radiographic features, and treatment of a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis complicated by dysphagia. This case serves as an educational tool by bringing attention to an uncommon complication of a common disorder. An emphasis is placed on diagnostic imaging. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 63-year-old man had dysphagia after a fall from a ladder. Plain film radiographs revealed large flowing hyperostoses arising from the anterior aspect of C3-6. Advanced imaging, consisting of a computed tomography (CT) scan and a modified barium-swallow study were performed to provide additional anatomic and functional information. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: Treatment provided by a speech and language pathologist focused on the dysphagia and consisted of compensatory management for 2 weeks. The patient was able to successfully swallow pur ed food and was released with instructions to modify his diet as tolerated. CONCLUSION: Dysphagia is a common clinical presentation for many disorders of deglutition. Flowing spinal hyperostoses such as that seen in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis may become large enough to physically encroach on the pharynx or esophagus or indirectly predispose the patient to swallowing problems from posttraumatic edema. Conservative care is the initial treatment of choice, whereas surgical excision of the hyperostoses is reserved for difficult cases. ( info)
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