Cases reported "Hyperoxaluria, Primary"

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1/14. Liver-kidney-transplantation in type 1 primary hyperoxaluria: description and comments on a case.

    BACKGROUND: Primary hyperoxaluria leads to oxalosis, a systemic illness with fatal prognosis in uremic youngsters because of systemic complications. Case report: A 14-year old boy with primary type 1 hyperoxaluria who had a long-lasting history of nephrolithiasis and passed from normal renal function to end-stage renal disease within 7 months. MEASUREMENT of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) catalytic activity in the liver biopsy disclosed very low activity which was not. responsive to pyridoxin., thus the patient entered onto a priority national waiting list for liver-kidney transplantation and a week later received a combined transplant. In order to increase body clearance of oxalate, the patient underwent medical treatment to increase urine oxalate solubility (sodium and potassium citrate oral therapy, magnesium supplementation and increase of diuresis) and intensive dialysis both before and after transplantation. comment: The medical approach to the treatment of this rare illness is discussed. Since the major risk for the grafted kidney is related to the oxalate burden, i.e. oxalate deposition from the body deposits to the kidney that becomes irreversibly damaged, treatment consists of increasing the body clearance of oxalate both by increasing oxalate solubility in the urine and with intensive dialysis performed both before and after combined transplantation. To the same extent (by limiting body oxalate deposits), a relatively early (native GFR 20-25 ml/minute) transplantation is advisable.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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2/14. Small intestinal infarction: a fatal complication of systemic oxalosis.

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic disorder characterised by calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis leading to renal failure, often with extra-renal oxalate deposition (systemic oxalosis). Although ischaemic complications of crystal deposition in vessel walls are well recognised clinically, these usually take the form of peripheral limb or cutaneous ischaemia. This paper documents the first reported case of fatal intestinal infarction in a 49 year old woman with systemic oxalosis and advocates its consideration in the differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen in such patients.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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3/14. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 causing end-stage renal disease in a 45-year-old patient.

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by deficiency of peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase which is in humans exclusively expressed in liver cells. The disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and initial symptoms usually occur in early childhood. Up to the age of 25 years, 90% of the patients are symptomatic, and many patients develop end-stage renal failure. Pronounced medical care is necessary in PH1 patients to prevent generalized oxalosis with complications due to bone disease and peripheral gangrene. The rather short survival of patients on hemodialysis is caused by sudden arrhythmias and heart block. As no dialysis procedure is able to remove the daily produced oxalate, early transplantation is mandatory. Our 45-year-old patient is remarkable on the basis of the late manifestations of PH1. The diagnosis was delayed by unspecific symptoms of nephrolithiasis with recurrent pyelonephritis. Clinical course and diagnostic cornerstones of primary hyperoxaluria are outlined. The principles of conservative treatment and experiences with dialysis and transplantation are discussed.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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4/14. Primary hyperoxaluria: report of a patient with livedo reticularis and digital infarcts.

    Primary hyperoxaluria encompasses 3 rare genetic disorders of glyoxylate metabolism characterized by excessive urinary excretion of oxalic acid, resulting in oxalosis. patients typically have recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, leading to chronic renal failure and death from uremia. Oxalate can deposit in extrarenal sites such as the heart, walls of arteries and veins, bone, and skin. We report a patient who presented with acute renal failure and later experienced livedo reticularis and peripheral gangrene before the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria was established. A skin biopsy specimen demonstrated numerous characteristic elongate to diamond-shaped, radially oriented, pale yellow translucent oxalate crystals within the vessels, and vessel walls of the subcutaneous fat that were strongly birefringent under polarized light.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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5/14. Primary hyperoxaluria: a rare but important cause of nephrolithiasis.

    We report on a middle-aged man with end-stage renal failure apparently secondary to recurrent renal stones. He developed systemic oxalosis soon after commencing dialysis. The diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 was supported by the finding of high dialysate glycolate excretion. The patient subsequently received an isolated cadaveric renal transplant, but the outcome was a rapid recurrence of oxalosis and early graft failure. Although isolated liver or renal transplantation in addition to various adjuvant measures may be considered in the early stage, combined liver-kidney transplantation remains the only definitive therapy for a patient with end-stage renal failure and systemic oxalosis due to hyperoxaluria type 1. This case illustrates the possible late presentation of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and the poor outcome with isolated renal transplantation after the development of systemic oxalosis. One should thus have a high index of suspicion in patients with recurrent renal stones of this rare, but nevertheless important, entity.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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6/14. Primary hyperoxaluria in a 27-year-old woman.

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting in precipitation of insoluble oxalate crystals in the joints, kidneys, heart, eyes, and skin. Two thirds of patients have calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis by age 5 years and 80% die of renal failure by age 20 years. Rarely, the disease will present in adulthood, with the onset of symptoms occurring as late as the sixth decade. We present a 27-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease who presented to the dermatology department for the evaluation of a reticular rash shortly after beginning peritoneal dialysis. Associated symptoms included arthralgias and episodic acral cyanosis. Previous kidney and skin biopsy specimens revealed crystalline deposition, however, the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria was not entertained until an atrial mass was found to have the same crystalline material. This report reviews primary hyperoxaluria and underscores the importance of recognizing the disease as a cause of renal failure in a patient with livedo reticularis and skin lesions resembling calciphylaxis. Early recognition of the disease is important because combined liver-kidney transplantation may achieve long-term survival.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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7/14. An unusual cause of acute renal failure in systemic sclerosis.

    BACKGROUND: Scleroderma renal crisis is one of the most life threatening complications of scleroderma. Enteric hyperoxaluria complicates extensive disease or resection of the small intestine in the presence of an intact colon, and is associated with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. This cause of renal failure may be underestimated and should be considered in all patients with malabsorption and renal failure. CASE REPORT: A 78 year old woman with systemic sclerosis affecting the bowel developed acute renal failure caused by oxalate nephropathy. RESULTS: The patient's renal failure improved on an oxalate free diet.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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8/14. Severe course of primary hyperoxaluria and renal failure after domino hepatic transplantation.

    We report herein a domino orthotopic liver transplantation (LT), from a 38-year-old woman undergoing liver-kidney transplantation (LKT) for primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) to a recipient with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Delayed onset of PH1 and renal failure and 10% residual alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) activity in domino liver justified its use for domino procedure. The clinical course after LKT was similar to that described in other series, including ours. Renal function started promptly and maintained despite sustained hyperoxaluria from dissolution of oxalotic deposits. Conversely, the domino recipient manifested severe hyperoxaluria and developed nephrolithiasis and renal insufficiency with rapid progression over 2 months. A new LT resulted in slow decrease of oxaluria and improvement of renal function. Therefore, PH1 behaved quite differently in these two patients, leading us to conclude that domino LT using livers from PH1 patients should be considered very carefully, only as a bridge to definitive LT in recipients with critical clinical conditions.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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9/14. Treatment of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 with sequential liver and kidney transplants from the same living donor.

    alanine-glyoxalate aminotransferase deficiency occurs in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Increased hepatic oxalate production leads to high urine concentrations of glycolate and oxalate. calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis occur, and renal function progressively declines until patients develop end-stage renal disease. Renal transplantation alone is inadequate therapy because the primary enzyme deficiency remains. We report what we believe to be the second-youngest recipient to undergo successful sequential liver and kidney transplantation from a single living-related donor for treatment of primary hyperoxaluria type 1. We also discuss the changes in this patient's serum oxalate levels after transplantation.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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10/14. Atypical features of primary hyperoxaluria in end-stage renal disease.

    Two case histories of patients with end-stage renal disease subsequently found to have primary hyperoxaluria are reported. In the setting of renal failure, the diagnosis is both difficult, due to diminished oxalate excretion, and important, because of frequent graft loss due to oxalate deposition after renal transplantation. The diagnosis was obtained by renal and bone biopsies. plasma oxalate levels were normal in one patient and the other patient presented with extensive cystic bone lesions. Primary hyperoxaluria should be considered whenever nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis are associated with end-stage renal disease.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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