Cases reported "Hyperoxaluria, Primary"

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1/5. Liver-kidney-transplantation in type 1 primary hyperoxaluria: description and comments on a case.

    BACKGROUND: Primary hyperoxaluria leads to oxalosis, a systemic illness with fatal prognosis in uremic youngsters because of systemic complications. Case report: A 14-year old boy with primary type 1 hyperoxaluria who had a long-lasting history of nephrolithiasis and passed from normal renal function to end-stage renal disease within 7 months. MEASUREMENT of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) catalytic activity in the liver biopsy disclosed very low activity which was not. responsive to pyridoxin., thus the patient entered onto a priority national waiting list for liver-kidney transplantation and a week later received a combined transplant. In order to increase body clearance of oxalate, the patient underwent medical treatment to increase urine oxalate solubility (sodium and potassium citrate oral therapy, magnesium supplementation and increase of diuresis) and intensive dialysis both before and after transplantation. comment: The medical approach to the treatment of this rare illness is discussed. Since the major risk for the grafted kidney is related to the oxalate burden, i.e. oxalate deposition from the body deposits to the kidney that becomes irreversibly damaged, treatment consists of increasing the body clearance of oxalate both by increasing oxalate solubility in the urine and with intensive dialysis performed both before and after combined transplantation. To the same extent (by limiting body oxalate deposits), a relatively early (native GFR 20-25 ml/minute) transplantation is advisable.
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2/5. Dilemma of oxalosis in end stage renal failure: isolated kidney allograft or hemodialysis.

    We report the case of a 10-year-old girl who received a cadaveric kidney transplant for oxalosis after a period of 12 months on hemodialysis. The donor was a 6-year-old child. cold ischemia was four hours. diuresis occurred immediately in the operating room. Mean daily diuresis was maintained at 8 liters: first by i.v. perfusion, then by nocturnal continuous nasogastric hydration. In addition to the usual immunosuppressive drugs, she received pyridoxine, sodium citrate, phosphate, hydrochlorothiazide and magnesium. Daily hemodialysis was performed from Day 1 to Day 9 and four additional sessions every other day. The postoperative course was satisfactory. Oxaluria was elevated initially at 1074 mg/24 h (normal < 50 mg/24 h). One year later, mean daily diuresis is still 8 liters, renal function is normal and oxaluria is at 296 mg/24 h. Repeated graft sonography showed no nephrocalcinosis, but mild oxalate deposits are noted on renal biopsy. Isolated renal transplantation was successful in our patient. It allowed us to stop hemodialysis and to avoid extra-renal accumulation of oxalate. Despite this success, we are convinced that long term prognosis is uncertain and liver transplantation should be realized to correct definitely the biochemical defect.
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3/5. Vitamin B6 resistant primary hyperoxaluria type I. Report of 5 cases.

    Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH I) is characterized by an excessive endogenous production and excretion of oxalic and glycolic acid. prognosis of this "inborn error of metabolism" is not favorable due to calcium-oxalate depositions in kidney and other organs. Vitamin B6 administration and/or renal transplantation can greatly improve the prognosis, as reported in literature. In this article our experience with 5 patients with vitamin B6 resistant hyperoxaluria is reported. Symptomatology and progression of the primary disease are described. The results of treatment interfering with oxalate production and calcium-oxalate crystallization are given. Three patients underwent renal replacement therapy. In these, oxalosis developed during hemodialysis and progressed following transplantation; a disabling bone disease was the most severe complication. Outcome of transplantation was disappointing. In two out of three patients, there was recurrence of the primary disease in the graft. In only one of them long-term graft function was satisfying. However, even this good function could not prevent disabling symptoms of oxalosis. Therefore, evaluation of the results of transplantation should not only include data related to graft function and survival, but also the complications due to calcium-oxalate depositions in various organs. To prevent oxalosis, kidney transplantation should be performed before end stage renal disease is achieved in patients with vitamin B6 resistant PH I.
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4/5. Long-term prognosis in primary hyperoxaluria type II (L-glyceric aciduria).

    Primary hyperoxaluria type II (PH-II) or L-glyceric aciduria was first reported by Williams and Smith in 1968 (N Engl J Med 278:233-239, 1968). Deficiencies of D-glycerate dehydrogenase and glyoxylate reductase activity in patients with this disorder leads to increases in urinary oxalate and glycerate excretion. Clinically, PH-II presents in a similar fashion to the more common variant of the disorder, PH-I, with symptoms of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. To date, 16 patients with PH-II have been described, and information regarding follow-up is available in only three. We review these reports and present five additional patients from three families, four of whom have been followed closely for more than 20 years. The favorable long-term outcome of our patients over 110 patient-years, as determined by renal function testing and radiographic evaluation, suggests that PH-II may have a more favorable prognosis when compared with the natural history of PH-I. Systematic screening of all PH patients in our practice led to the discovery of five of 30 with PH-II, thus suggesting that this subset population may be more common than originally suspected.
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5/5. nephrocalcinosis in a patient with primary hyperoxaluria type 2.

    Although nephrocalcinosis is a classical finding in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH 1) associated with a poor renal survival it is exceptional in patients with PH type 2 (PH 2), characterized by a more favorable outcome. We describe an 8-month-old girl who suffered from recurrent urinary tract infections. Imaging studies revealed a profound corticomedullary nephrocalcinosis with no evidence of calculi. Urinary oxalate and D-glycerate excretion were massively elevated, while urinary glycolate or glyoxylate could not be detected, confirming the diagnosis of PH 2. Although the nephrocalcinosis progressed radiologically, renal function remained stable for over 2 years. Only further follow-up will show whether the associated nephrocalcinosis worsens the prognosis of our patient and of PH 2 in general.
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