Cases reported "Hyperoxaluria"

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1/9. Chronic renal failure secondary to oxalate nephropathy: a preventable complication after jejunoileal bypass.

    Enteric hyperoxaluria is a commonly seen adverse event after the jejunoileal bypass procedure. The increased concentration of urinary oxalate predisposes bypass patients to various renal complications such as nephrolithiasis and oxalate nephropathy. If not diagnosed and appropriately treated, these complications can lead to irreversible renal damage. We describe 3 patients in whom severe renal complications developed with irreversible compromise of renal function after a jejunoileal bypass. patients who undergo a jejunoileal bypass require lifelong follow-up with close monitoring of their renal function. Marked decline in renal function mandates prompt investigation and aggressive intervention, including reversal of the jejunoileal bypass if necessary. Chronic renal failure secondary to oxalate nephropathy is preventable and treatable but may require conversion of a jejunoileal bypass to a more current form of bypass.
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2/9. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduces urinary oxalate excretion in short bowel syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) have steatorrhea, in part because of bile acid malabsorption that causes decreased bile acid secretion into the duodenum and consequent fat maldigestion. In SBS patients with colon in continuity, luminal calcium forms calcium fatty acid soaps rather than precipitating as insoluble calcium oxalate. Soluble oxalate is hyperabsorbed by the colon leading to hyperoxaluria and an increased risk for renal calcium oxalate stones and deposits. The authors hypothesized that oral ingestion of conjugated bile acids would increase fat absorption and thereby decrease calcium fatty acid soap formation and oxalate hyperabsorption. methods: The effect of conjugated bile acid replacement therapy (9 g/d) on fecal fat excretion and urine oxalate excretion was measured in an appropriate patient, utilizing the metabolic balance technique. The effects of chronic bile acid replacement therapy on oxalate excretion and nutritional status also were measured in a 3-month outpatient study. RESULTS: Natural conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduced fecal fat excretion from 119 to 79 g/d (Delta40 g/d), and urinary oxalate excretion from 87 to 64 mg/d (966 to 710 micromol/d; Delta23 mg/d). Cholylsarcosine, a synthetic conjugated bile acid, had similar but less powerful effects. During a 3-month outpatient trial of natural conjugated bile acids (9 g/d), urine oxalate decreased to normal levels (27 mg/d) in association with weight gain, decreased hunger, and decreased hyperphagia. CONCLUSION: Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduced fecal fat excretion, reduced urinary oxalate excretion, and improved nutritional status in a patient with SBS with colon in continuity, hyperoxaluria, and oxalate nephrolithiasis.
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3/9. hyperoxaluria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and renal failure after massive resection of the small intestine: report of a case.

    hyperoxaluria is frequently seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, or after resection of the ileum. It is assumed to be responsible for the development of nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis (oxalate nephrosis) and progressive renal impairment in these patients. steatorrhea may aggravate the severity of hyperoxaluria. A 60-year-old male underwent massive resection of the jejunum and ileum 10 years prior to admission, due to strangulation of the small bowel, with occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. He remained well except for steatorrhea which developed two-and-a-half years prior to admission, when microhematuria, proteinuria and oxaluria developed progressively. Since that time, the nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and renal failure have continued to worsen despite therapy with oxalate restriction and oxalate-binding agents. A renal biopsy, performed late in the clinical course, showed severe changes in the renal parenchyma. The decline in renal function proved irreversible. The unusual metabolic consequences of massive resection of the small intestine and their mechanisms are discussed.
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4/9. endocytosis of calcium oxalate crystals and proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells in a patient with type 1 primary hyperoxaluria.

    A patient with primary hyperoxaluria who received a liver-kidney transplant is presented. A postoperative renal biopsy showed apparent tubular cell endocytosis of calcium oxalate crystals and cell proliferation, indicating that renal epithelial cells do not perceive urinary crystals as inert. Such cellular responses to crystals may have a role in nephrolithiasis.
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5/9. Clinical and histologic features of primary oxalosis.

    Primary oxalosis should be considered in patients with multisystem disease of the kidneys, heart, peripheral vasculature, and skin. Crystalline deposits can lead to nephrolithiasis with kidney failure, complete heart block, peripheral vasospasm, and livedo reticularis, as in our patient. Crystals were first observed in the myocardial biopsy specimen and then identified as calcium oxalate in skin from an area of livedo reticularis.
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6/9. Cardioembolic stroke in primary oxalosis with cardiac involvement.

    Primary oxalosis is a rare disorder of oxalate metabolism, characterized by nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and extrarenal deposition of calcium oxalate in several tissues, including the heart. We report the case of a 34-year-old man with sudden right hemiparesis and aphasia from the occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Clinical features and the results of laboratory investigations led to the diagnosis of primary oxalosis. Two-dimensional echocardiography disclosed the presence of massive intracardiac calcifications compatible with deposition of calcium oxalate. The absence of other causes of stroke strengthened a cause-and-effect relation between cardiac oxalosis and cerebral infarction. Consequently, cardiac oxalosis should be considered among possible occult cardiac sources of cerebral embolism.
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7/9. Systemic oxalosis: pathognomonic renal and specific extrarenal findings on US and CT.

    hyperoxaluria is characterized by nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis on radiological examination and may also result in diffuse deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in multiple extrarenal organs (oxalosis). In two cases, the renal findings of primary hyperoxaluria were diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography scans. In addition to renal involvement, both patients had liver involvement, and one patient had cardiac involvement.
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8/9. Detection of primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (L-glyceric aciduria) in patients with maintained renal function or end-stage renal failure.

    Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) type 1 and type 2 are autosomal recessive defects of oxalate metabolism resulting from glyoxylate accumulation which occurs by two distinct pathways. PH1 is associated to glycolic aciduria; PH2 to L-glyceric aciduria. Because hyperoxaluria leads to nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis in both, they can be differentiated only through detection of the associated acidurias. However, glycolate and L-glycerate assays are not widely available and, in the setting of ESRF, diagnosis is hampered by a number of misleading events. At any stage of the disease diagnosis is crucial because there are differences between the two forms in clinical behaviour, long-term prognosis, and treatment. In this paper we outline diagnostic criteria for identification of PH2 in two patients, one with maintained renal function and one with ESRF on CPD, based on the use of a novel HPLC assay of L-glycerate in different body fluids. With the routine application of this procedure PH2 has been identified in two of 23 patients fulfilling criteria for diagnosis of PH. This suggests that the type 2 variant of PH may occur more frequently than so far suspected, and should be tested for even in the setting of ESRF.
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keywords = nephrolithiasis
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9/9. nephrolithiasis due to primary hyperparathyroidism and enteric hyperoxaluria: a case report.

    Enteric hyperoxaluria and primary hyperparathyroidism have been associated with the development of nephrolithiasis. We report a case involving a patient who had hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma and enteric hyperoxaluria resulting from a small bowel bypass and who had severe stone-related complications. This combination of stone-generating factors has heretofore not been reported. The pathophysiology of these entities is discussed.
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