Cases reported "hyperoxaluria"

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1/70. Steroid-responsive pleuropericarditis and livedo reticularis in an unusual case of adult-onset primary hyperoxaluria.

    We present a case of a 54-year-old woman with rapidly progressive renal failure of uncertain origin, who developed pleuropericarditis and livedo reticularis 6 weeks after initiation of hemodialysis (HD). The presentation with acute renal failure, the development of serositis, and the dramatic clinical response to empiric steroid therapy initially suggested the diagnosis of a systemic inflammatory disorder or vasculitis. Renal biopsy, performed 3 days after presentation, suggested crystal deposition disease, and subsequent investigations, using both dialysate oxalate concentrations and liver biopsy, led to the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria (PH). We discuss this atypical adult presentation of PH and propose a role for the use of steroids in the management of the acute inflammatory symptoms of oxalosis. We also briefly discuss the current medical management of patients with PH, including transplantation. ( info)

2/70. Acute renal failure, oxalosis, and vitamin C supplementation: a case report and review of the literature.

    With the increased use of nonprescription vitamin supplementation, physicians involved in critical care must be aware of the potential complications of these medications. We report the case of a 31-year-old African-American man presenting to the emergency department with acute renal failure. He had previously been well and initially denied the use of any drugs except for vitamin C tablets obtained at a local health food store. This case report and review of the literature is utilized to illustrate the importance of historical data in patients presenting with acute renal failure to a critical care service. ( info)

3/70. Renal complications of jejuno-ileal bypass for obesity.

    Jejuno-ileal bypass has until recently been an accepted treatment for refractory morbid obesity. Although hyperoxaluria causing renal tract calculi is a well-recognized complication, we describe eight patients who developed significant renal failure attributable to hyperoxaluria resulting from this procedure, three requiring renal replacement therapy. We review the literature, describing 18 other cases with renal failure, the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and its treatment. Because reversal of the bypass may result in stabilization or partial improvement of renal function, these patients require long-term follow-up of renal function. ( info)

4/70. Domino hepatic transplantation using the liver from a patient with primary hyperoxaluria.

    BACKGROUND: We report a case of domino liver transplantation using the liver harvested from a patient who underwent a combined liver and kidney transplantation for primary hyperoxaluria (PH). METHOD: A cadaveric liver transplantation was performed in a 19-year-old man with PH. In a second step, the PH liver harvested from the first patient was transplanted in a 69-year-old man with hepatitis c-related cirrhosis, not a candidate for a classic liver graft owing to multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: At 8 months after transplantation, the domino recipient has normal hepatic function and no signs of tumoral recurrence, but he progressively developed hyperoxalemia, hyperoxaluria, and renal insufficiency. CONCLUSION: Regarding the favorable postoperative clinical evolution, domino liver transplantations using livers from PH patients may represent a new opportunity for marginal candidates for liver transplantation. However, the progressive renal insufficiency expected in such domino recipients should limit this procedure to selected cases. ( info)

5/70. Chronic renal failure secondary to oxalate nephropathy: a preventable complication after jejunoileal bypass.

    Enteric hyperoxaluria is a commonly seen adverse event after the jejunoileal bypass procedure. The increased concentration of urinary oxalate predisposes bypass patients to various renal complications such as nephrolithiasis and oxalate nephropathy. If not diagnosed and appropriately treated, these complications can lead to irreversible renal damage. We describe 3 patients in whom severe renal complications developed with irreversible compromise of renal function after a jejunoileal bypass. patients who undergo a jejunoileal bypass require lifelong follow-up with close monitoring of their renal function. Marked decline in renal function mandates prompt investigation and aggressive intervention, including reversal of the jejunoileal bypass if necessary. Chronic renal failure secondary to oxalate nephropathy is preventable and treatable but may require conversion of a jejunoileal bypass to a more current form of bypass. ( info)

6/70. Efficacy of lamivudine for the treatment of hepatitis b virus infection after liver transplantation in children.

    BACKGROUND: There is at present very little information about hepatitis b virus (HBV) infection in children after liver transplantation. This is the first study to assess the safety and efficacy of lamivudine in this patient population. methods: We describe three children aged 5-14 years who underwent liver transplantation for fulminant hepatitis a, hyperoxaluria, and cystic fibrosis. Despite adequate immunoprophylaxis, two of the children who were serum hepatitis B surface antigen-positive before transplantation (HBV dna-negative by hybridization) had a reactivation of the disease, and one had a de novo HBV infection, at 12-18 months after transplantation. lamivudine 3 mg/kg was administered on a compassionate-use basis for 14-36 months. RESULTS: After 1 month of therapy, HBV dna disappeared from the serum in all patients by hybridization and in two patients by polymerase chain reaction. In all three children, alanine transaminase levels normalized. One child developed lamivudine resistance after 22 months with no evidence of hepatic decompensation. Repeated liver histological studies revealed progression of hepatic fibrosis in one child. All children remained serum hepatitis B surface antigen- and hepatitis B e antigen-positive. No adverse effects of the drug were noted. CONCLUSION: lamivudine is beneficial and well tolerated in children with HBV infection after liver transplantation. ( info)

7/70. Novel mutation in the GRHPR gene in a Chinese patient with primary hyperoxaluria type 2 requiring renal transplantation from a living related donor.

    We identified a patient with primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2) showing recurrent stone formation, nephrocalcinosis, end-stage renal failure, and rapid oxalate deposition after renal transplantation from a living related donor. Urinary organic acid analysis performed after renal transplantation confirmed the diagnosis of PH2. We analyzed the glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR) gene of the patient. dna sequencing of all nine exons and exon-intron boundaries showed a novel homozygous mutation deleting the last two nucleotides of exon 8, ie, 862delTG. This deletion results in a frameshift and introduction of a premature stop codon at codon 310, ie, Ala310Stop. One of the patient's sisters is heterozygous for this mutation, and the other sister, who is the donor, does not have this mutation. The rapid deposition of oxalate in the transplanted kidney indicates that the kidney is not a major site of oxalate production. The more favorable long-term prognosis of PH2 needs to be reevaluated now that the molecular basis of PH2 has been established. dna-based diagnosis will facilitate carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, genetic counseling, and selection of living related donors. ( info)

8/70. hyperoxaluria: an underestimated cause of rapidly progressive renal failure.

    hyperoxaluria is rarely considered as a cause of rapidly progressive renal failure. A case is reported of a patient in whom rapidly renal failure developed after subtotal small bowel resection. A diagnosis of calcium oxalate deposits nephropathy was confirmed by renal biopsy. This cause of renal failure may be underestimated and should be systematically searched for in all patients with malabsorption. ( info)

9/70. Enteric hyperoxaluria: a hidden cause of early renal graft failure in two successive transplants: spontaneous late graft recovery.

    A 37-year-old patient underwent two successive renal transplantations 7 months apart. He remained dialysis dependent. Early biopsy of both grafts revealed widespread calcium oxalate deposition suggestive of acute oxalate nephropathy. Several causes of oxalate nephropathy, including primary oxalosis and an increased intake of oxalic acid precursors, were excluded. Two years later, the identification of steatorrhea with radiologic signs of chronic pancreatitis led to the hypothesis of enteric hyperoxaluria. Surprisingly, 11 months after the second transplantation, graft function improved progressively allowing interruption of dialysis. Three years later, renal function is stable. The causes and prevention of acute oxalate-induced graft failure are highlighted. Subclinical evidence of enteric hyperoxaluria should be looked for and appropriate therapy instituted as early as possible. The possibility of a late recovery of renal function warrants attentive patience from attending physicians. ( info)

10/70. Domino as a bridge to definitive liver transplantation in a neonate.

    An interim liver transplant was used to extend survival in a neonate. This was accomplished by the initial transplant of a left-lateral segment of a metabolically abnormal liver obtained from a 7-yr-old patient with primary oxalosis. This bridging strategy was required because our neonatal patient was dying of fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatic vein thrombosis and a small liver or liver segment could not be found. Although problems with hyperoxaluria were encountered in the neonate post-transplant, the interim liver transplant enabled the baby to survive and grow until the age of 4 months. At that time, a definitive transplant was performed using the left-lateral segment of his mother's liver. This case represents the first reported use of a pediatric domino transplant where a metabolically abnormal liver was used to allow sufficient growth to permit a definitive liver transplantation. ( info)
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