Cases reported "Hyperparathyroidism"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/206. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach. Primary hyperparathyroidism simulating an acute severe polyneuritis.

    The case is presented of a 65 year old lady with recent onset of neuromuscular manifestations, comprising paraparesis, areflexia and unsteady gait, along with episodes of slurring of speech and diplopia, later confirmed to be due to severe hypercalcaemia--which itself was caused by primary hyperparathyroidism. Restoration of normocalcaemia, by means of rehydration and bisphosphonate therapy, resulted in clinical improvement--whilst subsequent parathyroidectomy was followed by complete resolution of all symptoms. In order to make prompt differentiation between the neurological sequelae of hyperparathyroidism and a primary neurological disorder, a high index of suspicion is required. An urgent serum calcium assay, as part of a bone profile, is mandatory in patients who present with neurological symptoms--especially the elderly, amongst whom hyperparathyroidism is especially common.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/206. Inappropriate elevation of intact PTH in the presence of normocalcemia after successful surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.

    We describe here a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism who had high serum intact PTH levels for over 16 months after parathyroidectomy without signs of recurrence or persistence of the disease. The patient was a 48-year-old female who appeared well nourished (body mass index, 23.7). She was received subtotal gastrectomy as treatment for a duodenal ulcer at 44 years and 5 months old and had reached menopaused at 46 years of age. hypercalcemia and a high serum intact PTH level were pointed out three months before admission to our institute. A bone densitometric study revealed that the bone mass of the lumbar spine was extremely reduced (0.636 g/cm2, Z score, -2.17) preoperatively and had not increased 29.5 months after parathyroidal adenomectomy (0.656 g/cm2, Z score, -1.97). hyperparathyroidism, menopause and gastrectomy may have together contributed to the reduced bone mass. The postoperative persistently increased PTH levels in our patient suggest that the remaining parathyroid glands could have been altered during hypercalcemia, causing an increase in the set-point of PTH secretion by serum calcium or a decrease in the renal responsiveness to PTH during the disease.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 3
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/206. hypocalcemia due to spontaneous infarction of parathyroid adenoma and osteomalacia in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    A 49 year-old Japanese woman had subjected enlargement of a cervical tumor, and also suffered two bone fractures in 2 years. The cervical tumor had enlarged further in the month prior to admission, becoming warm and tender. Endocrinological examination revealed that the serum intact PTH concentration was remarkably high at 400 pg/mL despite the low serum calcium concentration, and that the serum vitamin Ds concentration was decreased. Bone roentgenograms revealed severe osteolytic changes compatible with osteitis fibrosa cystica and a pathologic fracture of the humerus. Under a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroidectomy was performed, followed by fixation surgery for the pathologic fracture. Histologically, the cervical tumor was a parathyroid chief-cell adenoma with massive necrosis, and the bone pathology by iliac bone biopsy revealed the existence of osteomalacia. She was treated with calcium, vitamins D and K2 and calcitonin after the surgery. This case is a rare condition manifesting hypocalcemia with catastrophic osteoporosis under the coexistence of spontaneous infarction of parathyroid adenoma with osteomalacia, suggesting that the clinical features of hyperparathyroidism are modified by both the autoparathyroidiectomy and the existence of osteomalacia due to vitamin d deficiency.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 3
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/206. Rapid improvement of osteoporosis following parathyroidectomy in a premenopausal woman with acute primary hyperparathyroidism.

    We describe a premenopausal white woman with symptomatic acute primary hyperparathyroidism and marked osteoporosis. After undergoing a parathyroidectomy, the patient experienced not only rapid symptomatic relief, but also marked improvement in bone mineral density, which increased by 25% in the hip and by 22% in the lumbar spine 1 year after the surgery. Acute primary hyperparathyroidism should be considered in any patient with severe symptomatic hypercalcemia. Appropriate treatment with early parathyroidectomy can result in significant and rapid improvement in bone mineral density.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/206. PHEX expression in parathyroid gland and parathyroid hormone dysregulation in X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), a renal phosphate (Pi) wasting disorder with defective bone mineralization, is caused by mutations in the PHEX gene (a Pi-regulating gene with homology to endopeptidases on the x chromosome). parathyroid hormone (PTH) status in XLH has been controversial, with the prevailing belief that hyperparathyroidism develops in response to Pi therapy. We report a 5-year-old girl with XLH (patient 1) who had significant hyperparathyroidism at presentation, prior to initiation of therapy. We examined her response to a single oral Pi dose, in combination with calcitriol, and demonstrated a rise in serum concentration of intact PTH, which peaked at 4 h and paralleled the rise in serum Pi concentration. We also present two other patients whose parathyroid glands were analyzed for PHEX mRNA expression following parathyroidectomy. Patient 2 had autonomous hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal insufficiency, and patient 3, with XLH, developed autonomous hyperparathyroidism after 8 years of therapy with Pi and calcitriol. Following parathyroidectomy, patient 3 exhibited an increase in both serum Pi concentration and renal Pi reabsorption. The abundance of PHEX mRNA, relative to beta-actin mRNA, in parathyroid glands from patients 2 and 3 was several-fold greater than that in human fetal calvaria, as estimated by ribonuclease protection assay. In summary, we have shown that hyperparathyroidism can be a primary manifestation of XLH and that PHEX is abundantly expressed in the parathyroid gland. Given that PHEX has homology to endopeptidases, we propose that PHEX may have a role in the normal regulation of PTH.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/206. Co-existence of osteogenesis imperfecta and hyperparathyroidism.

    osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and hyperparathyroidism (HTP) are disorders affecting the skeletal system and calcium metabolism not evidently related to one another. We report a case in which both OI and HPT were present. Our female patient presented with hypercalcaemia (S-Ca2 1.59 mmol/l; normal range 1.15-1.30) and 4-gland parathyroid hyperplasia at 30 years of age. Since her first year she had fractures, blue sclera, hypermobile joints, short stature (height 1.51 m, weight 49.5 kg) but normal hearing, and dentiogenesis imperfecta (tooth disease caused by defective formation of dentin) was absent. This patient bears many similarities with the 5 patients reported previously but it is the only patient, to our knowledge, with OI and early onset of HPT (30 year old female). We have found the OI to be type 1. A minor improvement of the rate of bone turnover 10 months after parathyroidectomy indicates the HPT to be primary and suggests the OI type 1 and pHPT to be two different calcium metabolic diseases incidentally occurring in the same patient.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/206. Coincidence of hot thyroid nodules and primary hyperparathyroidism.

    hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with hypercalcemia, which usually subsides after successful treatment of hyperthyroidism. Moreover, thyroid nodules are frequently detected by preoperative thyroid ultrasound in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Sensitised by the observation of a patient with coexisting hyperthyroidism and hyperparathyroidism we prospectively evaluated thyroid nodules in euthyroid patients with hyperparathyroidism by thyroid scintigraphy. Whereas the first patient with hyperparathyroidism was hyperthyroid the subsequent four patients with hyperparathyroidism and thyroid nodules had normal fT3 and fT4. Two patients had hypercalcemia and nephroureterolithiasis. Three patients suffered from hypercalcemia and bone pain due to osteoporosis. In the hyperthyroid patient hypercalcemia persisted after euthyroidism was achieved intact parathyroid hormone was found to be elevated. Subsequently, thyroid nodules, detected by preoperative ultrasound in four euthyroid patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, were identified as compensated hot nodules by thyroid scintigraphy. All patients underwent combined subtotal thyroidectomy and parathyroid resection. histology showed hyperplastic parathyroid glands in one patient and a single parathyroid adenoma in four cases. Postoperatively calcium and PTH levels returned to normal and TSH levels increased in all patients. Persistence of hypercalcemia after successful treatment of hyperthyroidism should be reason for the determination of parathyroid hormone. Thyroid nodules detected by preoperative ultrasound in patients with hyperparathyroidism living in areas of iodine deficiency should be further evaluated by scintigraphy even if TSH is normal. In the case of hot thyroid nodules both parathyroid and partial thyroid resection should be performed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/206. Sigmoid colon cancer associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: report of a case.

    We present herein a case of sigmoid colon cancer associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). PHP is known to be associated with malignancy, and decreased intracolonic calcium (Ca) resulting from increased vitamin D (VD) levels may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. PHP was diagnosed in this patient by preoperative screening blood chemistry examination. The blood level of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) was elevated and a parathyroid gland scintigram demonstrated abnormal uptake near the right lower lobe of the thyroid. There was no evidence of bone metastasis, and a sigmoid colectomy was performed with curative intent. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course without a critical elevation of the serum Ca level. This case report suggests that a relationship exists between PHP and colon cancer, and the possible mechanisms of this association are presented in our discussion.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/206. Autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism associated with short stature and premature osteoarthritis.

    Familial hypoparathyroidism is an unusual and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that may be isolated or may be associated with congenital or acquired abnormalities in other organs or glands. We have evaluated a family with a novel syndrome of autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism, short stature, and premature osteoarthritis. A 74-yr-old female (generation I) presented with hypoparathyroidism, a movement disorder secondary to ectopic calcification of the cerebellum and basal ganglia, and a history of knee and hip replacements for osteoarthritis. Two members of generation II and one member of generation III were also documented with hypoparathyroidism, short stature, and premature osteoarthritis evident as early as 11 yr. Because of the known association between autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism and activating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) gene, further studies were performed. Sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic dna revealed a leucine to valine substitution at position 616 in the first transmembrane domain of the CaR, which cosegregated with the disorder. However, this amino acid sequence change did not affect the total accumulation of inositol phosphates as a function of extracellular calcium concentrations in transfected HEK-293 cells. In conclusion, a sequence alteration in the coding region of the CaR gene was identified, but is not conclusively involved in the etiology of this novel syndrome. The cosegregation of hypoparathyroidism, short stature, and osteoarthritis in this kindred does suggest a genetic abnormality involving a common molecular mechanism in parathyroid, bone, and cartilage.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/206. Development of tertiary hyperparathyroidism after phosphate supplementation in oncogenic osteomalacia.

    Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome. It is characterized by bone pain, muscle weakness, gait disturbance, fractures and skeletal deformities. hypophosphatemia, diminished renal phosphate reabsorption, decreased 1,25 dihydroxy Vitamin D and elevated alkaline phosphatase are the biochemical hallmarks of this disorder. Most tumors are of mesenchymal origin. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with oncogenic osteomalacia caused by osteosarcoma of the right scapula which was unrecognized for several years. She subsequently developed tertiary hyperparathyroidism after treatment with oral phosphate and Vitamin D. This case illustrates that oncogenic osteomalacia may persist for many years before the tumor is discovered. This is because the tumors are frequently very small and are in obscure locations. The uniqueness of this case is the coexistence of hyperparathyroidism and oncogenic osteomalacia. Five other cases have been reported up to date. All patients had received phosphate supplement, ranging from 10 to 14 years prior to their diagnosis. Interestingly, our patient was on the treatment for only 2 years. The proposed mechanism is that exogenous phosphate stimulates parathyroid activity through sequestration of calcium.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Hyperparathyroidism'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.