Cases reported "Hyperparathyroidism"

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1/39. lithium therapy, hypercalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism.

    lithium is a monovalent cation that influences calcium metabolism in various tissues including the brain, kidney, heart, and parathyroid gland. Mr. A received treatment with lithium for 19 years because this medication proved to be effective in the management of his bipolar illness. However, he developed hypercalcemia, hypertension, and episodes of severe bradyarrhythmia (one of them requiring admission to the medical intensive care unit), with lithium levels within the therapeutic range. An extended endocrine workup showed hyperparathyroidism, with elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels, hypercalcemia, hypocalciuria, and normal serum phosphate levels. These biochemical findings are different from those of primary hyperparathyroidism and are attributed to direct actions of the lithium in the kidney. Discontinuation of the lithium did not result in reversal of the abnormal findings. The patient had surgery, and hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland was found. After parathyroidectomy, the bradyarrhythmia subsided and the patient showed improvement both in his psychiatric condition and hypertension. Preliminary observations in nine other lithium-induced hypercalcemic patients show a high frequency of arrhythmias with bradycardia and conduction defects. These findings suggest that hypercalcemia with lithium increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emphasize the need for regular laboratory and electrocardiographic monitoring of patients on maintenance lithium therapy.
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2/39. A genotypic and histopathological study of a large Dutch kindred with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome.

    Familial primary hyperparathyroidism is the main feature of 2 familial endocrine neoplasia syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT). The latter is a recently described syndrome that has been associated with ossifying fibroma of the jaw and various types of renal lesions, including benign cysts, Wilms' tumor, and hamartomas. To further illustrate the natural history of this syndrome, we describe a large, previously unreported Dutch kindred in which 13 affected members presented with either parathyroid adenoma or carcinoma; in 5 affected individuals, cystic kidney disease was found. Additionally, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, renal cortical adenoma, papillary renal cell carcinoma, testicular mixed germ cell tumor with major seminoma component, and Hurthle cell thyroid adenoma were also identified. Linkage analysis of the family using MEN1-linked microsatellite markers and mutation analysis excluded the involvement of the MEN1 gene. Using markers from the HPT-JT region in 1q2531, cosegregation with the disease was found, with a maximum logarithm of odds score of 2.41 obtained for 6 markers using the most conservative calculation. Meiotic telomeric recombination between D1S413 and D1S477 was identified in 3 affected individuals, and when combined with previous reports, delineated the HPT-JT region to 14 centimorgan. Combined comparative genomic hybridization and loss of heterozygosity data revealed complex genetic abnormalities in the tumors, suggesting different possible genetic mechanisms for the disease. In conclusion, we report a family with hyperparathyroidism linked to chromosome 1q, and exhibiting several types of renal and endocrine tumors that have not been previously described.
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3/39. calculi complicating a renal transplant.

    Four months after a cadaver kidney transplant, kidney stones were found in the renal allograft. Three major predisposing causes of nephrolithiasis were found in the patient, including hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, and urinary tract infection. hypercalcemia was corrected by parathyroidectomy. During the subsequent three years there was no enlargement of the renal stones and adequate kidney function was maintained. Renal tubular acidosis was not severe and seemed to be related to chronic rejection. urinary tract infection was readily corrected with antibiotics and did not recur after the immediate post-transplant period. Surgical therapy for nephrolithiasis involving a kidney allograft was defferred since urinary flow was not obstructed. This course of management is recommended for use in patients with calculi complicating renal transplantation.
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4/39. New insights on the pathogenesis of hypercalcemia in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    The pathogenesis of hypercalcemia in primary hyperparathyroidism is attributed to increased calcium release from bone, increased calcium reabsorption in renal distal tubules, and increased intestinal calcium absorption. However, it remains unclear which factor is the main process. We encountered a 56-year-old woman with myasthenia gravis, in whom hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level were observed. Diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was made. Treatment with methylprednisolone for myasthenia gravis was associated with a marked decrease in both biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption without any changes in endogenous cAMP and serum levels of calcium, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3]. These findings suggest that the possible pathogenesis of hypercalcemia in primary hyperparathyroidism may be attributed to the increased calcium reabsorption in the kidney and the increased intestinal calcium absorption as a result of stimulated production of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the kidney. It thus follows that the renal tubular effect rather than the skeletal effect of the PTH excess may play a pivotal role in the development of hypercalcemia in primary hyperparathyroidism.
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5/39. Acute hypercalcemia of the heart ("bony heart").

    Cardiac abnormalities as a sign of hyperparathyroidism are common. A spectacular pitfall of peracute extended myocardiac hypercalcemia is reported. The history of a 30-year-old woman included symptoms such as insufficiency of the kidneys since childhood, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and hemodialysis for approximately 4 years. After kidney transplantation, the patient died from progressive heart failure. Three days before she died, CT showed a nearly white heart, and myocardial scintigraphy revealed a total infarction. The autopsy revealed a heart of normal size but with a weight of 590 g and with nearly bony texture. The histologic examination showed extended calcifications of the entire myocardium, thus explaining these findings. Laboratory photographs and electron microscopic images will be demonstrated. The metabolic pathogenesis of tertiary hyperparathyroidism and calciphylaxis is discussed. "Malignant" progression after kidney transplantation is stressed.
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6/39. A case of von hippel-lindau disease with bilateral pheochromocytoma, renal cell carcinoma, pelvic tumor, spinal hemangioblastoma and primary hyperparathyroidism.

    A rare case of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease with bilateral pheochromocytomas, right renal cell carcinoma, right pelvic carcinoma, spinal hemangioblastoma and primary hyperparathyroidism is described. A 78-year-old woman had a history of hypertension from her forties. She suffered from headache and body weight loss. Abdominal CT revealed bilateral adrenal tumors and right external renal tumors enhanced in early stage. MIBG scintigraphy exhibited a high accumulation of tracer in both adrenal glands. On the basis of the radiographic findings and endocrinological results, the patient was diagnosed as having bilateral pheochromocytomas and right renal cell carcinoma. A bilateral adrenectomy was performed, followed by surgery for resection of the renal cell carcinoma. The other resected right kidney showed a clear cell subtype that was determined to be renal cell carcinoma, and proved that the pelvic tumor was transient cell carcinoma. Spinal MRI showed spinal hemangioblastoma. von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutation for the patient was found. We diagnosed the patient as VHL because of the existence of spinal hemangioma and a VHL disease gene. Parathyroid echo revealed a hypoechoic space on the back of the left lobe, and serum calcium and intact PTH to be elevated. The patient was diagnosed as primary hyperparathyroidism. We report the first case of a patient with VHL disease complicated with bilateral pheochromocytomas, right renal cell carcinoma, right renal pelvic carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism. The life expectancy of affected individuals has been less than 50 years. Since the prognosis may be improved by an early diagnosis, affected individuals with VHL complexes should undergo cranial, spinal MRI and abdomen CT. The families may benefit from presymptomatic detection of affected gene carriers and the exclusion of at-risk family members by negative test results.
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7/39. Cardiac and pulmonary calcification in a hemodialysis patient: partial regression 4 years after parathyroidectomy.

    AIMS: The reversibility of extraskeletal calcifications in dialysis patients is an important and unresolved issue. Although periarticular calcifications have been shown to be reversible, little data are available on vascular or parenchymal calcifications. CASE HISTORY: A patient on maintenance hemodialysis with severe hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia was admitted to undergo parathyroidectomy. A preoperative total body bone scintigraphy was performed to better evaluate a lytic lesion in the pelvis, the histology of which proved to be a "brown tumor". The scan showed the typical findings of renal osteodystrophy, but also a diffuse extra-skeletal uptake of bone tracer in the lungs, kidneys, femoral arteries and myocardium. After surgery, good control of serum calcium, phosphate (Ca x P product < 50 mg2/dl2) and PTH levels was maintained during 4 years of follow-up. Bone scans were repeated after 2 and 4 years, showing marked improvement of periarticular uptake at the ends of long bones. Extraosseous calcium deposition was still markedly evident, but progressively decreased (at 4 years: heart -36%, lungs -18%). CONCLUSION: In this dialysis patient, extraskeletal calcification of visceral organs (particularly in the heart and the lungs) due to prolonged hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia was partially reversible by parathyroidectomy followed by good long-term control of serum phosphate and calcium.
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8/39. Abnormal bone scintigraphy and acute-onset severe primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Acute-onset primary hyperparathyroidism in a previously asymptomatic individual is uncommon. We herein report the case of a 61-yr old woman who underwent bone scintigraphy for severe, rapidly worsening, diffuse bone pain, associated with weight loss, anxiety and confusion. The patient was asymptomatic until a few days before presentation. A marked redistribution of the tracer was observed, with poor bone uptake and relevant accumulation in liver, kidneys, lungs and spleen. blood chemistry unequivocally allowed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism due to multiple parathyroid adenomas, as suggested by parathyroid scan. Unfortunately, the patient critically worsened and surgery was made impossible. She died despite intensive critical care. autopsy confirmed both massive intraparenchymal calcium deposition in the kidneys, lungs, liver and spleen, as well as multiple parathyroid adenomas. One may speculate that some adaptation of the organism to progressively increasing blood calcium levels and to slowly increasing intraparenchymal calcium salt deposition occurred, until critically high concentrations were attained.
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9/39. Tc-99m sestamibi localization of an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid tumor in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    A 50-year-old woman presented with pain and tenderness in the right flank. Urogram and ultrasound demonstrated the presence of an 8-mm calculus in the right kidney. There were persistently elevated serum calcium levels ranging from 10.7-11.4 mg/dL (normal range: 8.5-10.5) and borderline low serum phosphate levels of 2.4-2.9 mg/dL (normal range 2.5-4.5). serum albumin levels were normal. The patient's parathormone levels were elevated and a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was made. An MRI of the neck failed to reveal evidence of parathyroid pathology. Tc-99m sestamibi imaging demonstrated no abnormal parathyroid tissue in the neck, but clearly showed an abnormal focus in the anterior mediastinum.
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10/39. Functional characterization of calcium-sensing receptor codon 227 mutations presenting as either familial (benign) hypocalciuric hypercalcemia or neonatal hyperparathyroidism.

    Familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FBHH), in which calcium homeostasis is disordered, can be distinguished from mild primary hyperparathyroidism by the finding of a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Here, we report a Polish kindred with FBHH, the proband of which had undergone an unsuccessful parathyroidectomy. Direct sequence analysis of exon 4 of her CASR gene identified a heterozygous R227Q mutation in the extracellular domain of the receptor. This mutation segregated with other affected family members. A de novo heterozygous R227L mutation had previously been identified in a case of neonatal hyperparathyroidism. We performed a functional analysis by transiently transfecting wild-type and mutant (R227Q, R227L) CaSRs in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Both mutant receptors were expressed at a similar level to that of the wild-type, demonstrated a 160-kDa molecular species consistent with having undergone full maturation, and were visualized on the cell surface. Although both mutants were impaired in their MAPK responses to increasing extracellular calcium concentrations relative to wild type, this was more marked for R227L (EC(50) = 9.7 mM) than R227Q (EC(50) = 7.9 mM) relative to wild type (EC(50) = 3.7 mM). When cotransfected with wild-type CaSR to mimic the heterozygous state, the curves for both R227Q and R227L were right shifted intermediate to the curves for wild type and the respective mutant. This differential responsiveness may account, in part, for the markedly different clinical presentation of the R227Q mutation, classic FBHH, vs. the neonatal hyperparathyroidism of the R227L mutation.
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