Cases reported "Hyperparathyroidism"

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11/39. Multiple metastatic calcifications detected by bone scintigraphy and demonstrated by CT.

    Metastatic calcifications according to histopathologic and scintigraphic findings have been well-defined. The authors report a postoperative case of hyperparathyroidism with multiple metastatic calcifications in the lung, kidney, stomach, heart, and vessels that were primarily detected by bone scintigraphy and demonstrated by CT. Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy showed a markedly increased accumulation of radioactivity diffusely throughout the lung, left ventricular wall, both kidneys, and the gastric cardia and body. In the lung, plain films showed almost normal lung. CT, however, demonstrated patchy, slightly increased densities in the lung bilaterally. Cardiac CT indicated a considerably increased density of the ventricular myocardium and remarkable calcification in or near the atrioventricular septum or annulus fibrosus. Upper abdominal CT demonstrated increased densities diffusely throughout the gastric mucosa and renal cortex. Only vascular calcifications were depicted by plain films. Using both bone scintigraphy and CT provides accurate information about each lesion and each tissue, allowing precise diagnosis of even a questionable lesion in the early stage of metastatic calcification. early diagnosis and early therapy offer the best chance for cure or palliative therapy.
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12/39. IgA nephropathy in a young man with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    We report the first documented case of IgA nephropathy occurring after treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. A 29-year-old man with a history of kidney stones and primary hyperparathyroidism underwent kidney biopsy for persistent proteinuria and microhematuria 18 months after resection of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma with subsequent normalization of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. On ultrasound, renal intraparenchymal calcifications were noted. Renal biopsy revealed IgA nephropathy in addition to tubulointerstitial microcalcifications. The development of IgA nephropathy may have been influenced by hyperparathyroidism and/or its treatment. The case highlights the role of renal biopsy in patients with a history of kidney stones and abnormal urinary findings.
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13/39. multiple myeloma presenting with recurrent hypercalcemia in a patient with a history of primary hyperparathyroidism: report of case and review of literature.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) that presented with recurrent hypercalcemia due to multiple myeloma after successful parathyroidectomy. methods: The initial manifestations, investigations, and postoperative follow-up of a case of hypercalcemia due to PHPT are described. The studies performed for evaluation for recurrent hypercalcemia and the subsequent diagnosis of multiple myeloma are discussed. The association between these disorders and reports of similar cases in the literature are reviewed. RESULTS: A 72-year-old woman was referred for incidentally discovered hypercalcemia. She had no history of kidney stones or fractures. Further investigations revealed a high parathyroid hormone (PTH) level, hypercalciuria, and low bone mass, particularly at the cortical sites. parathyroidectomy was performed, and a right inferior parathyroid adenoma was removed. Postoperatively, both the calcium and PTH levels normalized. She presented 9 months later with a 3-week history of pain in her left hip, polyuria, nausea, and vomiting. The patient had severe hypercalcemia and a suppressed PTH level. Further investigations revealed multiple bony lytic lesions, abnormalities on serum protein electrophoresis, and features consistent with multiple myeloma on a bone marrow biopsy specimen. CONCLUSION: hypercalcemia can occur in patients with PHPT and multiple myeloma; however, the occurrence of both disorders in the same patient is rare. review of the literature revealed only a few cases similar to ours. Evidence in the literature suggests that monoclonal gammopathies occur more often in patients with PHPT than in the general population; therefore, screening for monoclonal gammopathy may be warranted in patients with PHPT.
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14/39. Multiple calcified deposits along the eyelid margins secondary to chronic renal failure and hyperparathyroidism.

    BACKGROUND: Corneal and conjunctival calcification have been associated with chronic renal failure and hyperparathyroidism. Corneal alterations include band keratopathy and/or limbal involvement similar to limbal girdle of Vogt. Conjunctival lesions resemble pingueculae. Lid lesions, which include calcified deposits adjacent to the meibomian gland orifices, are much less common. CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old woman came to SUNY State College of optometry clinic with a medical history of gestational hypertension, which led to chronic kidney failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Slit-lamp examination revealed multiple small, white, round calcium deposits, which were found just posterior to the Meibomian gland orifices, along the superior and inferior lid margins. CONCLUSION: Ocular calcification has been observed in patients with certain systemic diseases such as chronic renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, hypophosphonemia, sarcoidosis, hypervitaminosis D, and metastatic neoplasia. We present the third report of eyelid calcification associated with a systemic disease.
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15/39. parathyroidectomy for parathyroid carcinoma in renal transplantation.

    INTRODUCTION: hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a highly prevalent pathology in the chronic renal disease population, which is associated with considerable morbidity, and mortality. The histopathological findings most often reported are solitary adenoma, diffuse hyperplasia, and autonomous hyperplasia. carcinoma is an unusual cause of primary parathyroid hyperfunction (0.5% to 4% according to data); in renal transplanted patients it is exceptional. We sought to analyze parathyroid gland histology from renal transplant patients in comparison with nontransplanted patients and to report a parathyroid carcinoma case in a renal transplant patient. methods: We retrospectively analyzed parathyroidectomies (PTX) and histopathological reports between March 1989 and December 2003. RESULTS: Among 72 PTXs 41 were performed because of primary HPT; 26, secondary HPT; and five, tertiary HPT. Among the 41 primary HPT cases there were two carcinomas (4.88% primary HPT operated patients), one of whom was in a kidney transplant recipient. Among the total number of surgeries, seven were performed in six renal transplant patients, including five diffuse hyperplasia cases; one, nodular hyperplasia with an adenoma focus; and one, parathyroid carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: parathyroidectomy indications in the renal transplant population are usually associated with the clinical picture of tertiary HPT, which does not resolve after a functional renal transplant. In spite of this, diffuse hyperplasia, which is associated with secondary HPT, was the most frequent hystological finding. Two carcinomas were observed: one in a renal transplant patient (16.6% parathyroidectomies) and the other in a patient who did not show renal failure. These data coincide with international records.
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16/39. Primary hyperparathyroidism: problems in management.

    Most hyperparathyroidism is subclinical, with no complaints of bone pain, constipation, mental confusion, or depression, no skeletal findings on x-ray, and no history of kidney stones. Routine hyperparathyroidectomy for asymptomatic hypercalcemia, with normal bone density and normal calciuria, particularly with moderate elevations of serum calcium, is now generally rejected.
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17/39. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism attributable to long-term oral phosphate therapy.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a rare case of tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) as a result of long-term oral phosphate therapy. methods: We present a case report, with a focus on clinical manifestations and biochemical findings during the course of tertiary HPT, and discuss the pathophysiologic features of this disorder and the therapeutic strategies. RESULTS: A 35-year-old woman, 22 years after the initial diagnosis of familial hypophosphatemic rickets and initiation of treatment with phosphate and vitamin d, underwent assessment for recurrent symptomatic kidney stones, bone pain, and fatigue. Laboratory studies performed 10 months before this presentation showed findings consistent with secondary HPT. Examination was notable for short stature, and pertinent laboratory results were as follows: intact parathyroid hormone 602 pg/mL, calcium 10.9 mg/dL, and phosphorus 3.6 mg/dL. Tertiary HPT was diagnosed, and she underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy and transcervical thymectomy. Postoperatively, she had hypocalcemia and was treated with calcitriol, phosphate, and calcium carbonate; the last agent was discontinued when the serum calcium normalized. Despite multiple dosage alterations in the phosphate and calcitriol therapy, the patient had recurrent tertiary HPT and another kidney stone (treated by lithotripsy). Three years after the subtotal parathyroidectomy, treatment consisted of cinacalcet, calcitriol, and elemental phosphate. CONCLUSION: Long-term follow-up of patients with tertiary HPT is critical, with careful dosage adjustments in phosphate and vitamin d therapy and monitoring of serum levels of phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone.
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18/39. fluorescence-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: a novel surgical therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a severe and frequent complication in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, characterized by hyperplasia of all parathyroid glands and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels. When surgery is required to prevent cardiovascular consequences, bone pain, osteoporosis, or even soft-tissue calcifications, detection of the enlarged glands often can be difficult because of their variability in number and location. A novel surgical technique, fluorescence-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, may facilitate intraoperative localization of parathyroid glands. A 52-year-old woman with SHPT underwent minimally invasive videoscopic-assisted parathyroidectomy after photosensitization with aminolevulinic acid (ALA): Under special fluorescence illumination by D-light (Karl Storz Co, Tuttlingen, germany), bilateral neck exploration was performed. All enlarged parathyroid glands were identified because of their ALA-induced intense red fluorescence. Such surrounding structures as thyroid, lymph nodes, and soft tissue remained nonfluorescent and could be distinguished easily from parathyroid glands. Total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation into the sternocleidoid muscle was performed. In patients with SHPT, exploration of all parathyroid glands during surgery is mandatory. However, to date, there is no convincing technical aid for the surgeon to facilitate this procedure. The ALA-induced fluorescence technique represents an innovative visual detection method for intraoperative identification of parathyroid glands. The technique serves as an additional tool requiring only moderate technical and clinical expenditure.
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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19/39. Normalization of lithium-induced hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism with cinacalcet hydrochloride.

    An underrecognized side effect of long-term lithium carbonate therapy is hyperparathyroidism with associated hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria. Because cessation of lithium carbonate therapy usually does not correct the hyperparathyroidism and associated hypercalcemia, parathyroidectomy frequently is necessary. This is the initial report of 2 patients with lithium carbonate-induced hyperparathyroidism treated with cinacalcet hydrochloride (HCl), which normalized serum calcium levels and reduced intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) secretion. The patients, both with bipolar disease and a 15- to 30-year history of lithium carbonate therapy, were evaluated for stage 3 chronic kidney disease, persistent hypercalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism. A 67-year-old woman was administered cinacalcet HCl, 30 mg/d, for 11 months. Mean serum calcium level decreased from 10.8 /- 0.4 mg/dL (2.69 /- 0.10 mmol/L) to 9.9 /- 0.4 mg/dL (2.47 /- 0.10 mmol/L; P < 0.001), and iPTH level decreased from 139 /- 31 pg/mL (139 /- 31 ng/L) to 114 /- 39 pg/mL (114 /- 39 ng/L; P = not significant). A 63-year-old man was administered 30 mg/d of cinacalcet HCl for 8 months, then 60 mg/d for another 2 months. Mean serum calcium and iPTH levels decreased from 11.0 /- 0.5 mg/dL (2.74 /- 0.12 mmol/L) to 10.3 /- 0.4 mg/dL (2.57 /- 0.10 mmol/L; P < 0.001) and 138 /- 10 pg/mL (138 /- 10 ng/L) to 73 /- 7 pg/mL (73 /- 7 ng/L; P = 0.03), respectively. Urinary fractional excretion of calcium was low for both patients before (<0.026 and <0.015) and after (0.026 and 0.008) treatment with cinacalcet HCl. These findings suggest that cinacalcet HCl can provide an alternative nonsurgical means to control this disorder in patients with hypercalcemia of variable severity for whom surgical treatment is not a consideration because of perceived mildness of disease or unsuitability of the patient for surgical intervention.
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20/39. A case of McCune-Albright syndrome with hyperthyroidism and vitamin d-resistant rickets.

    A girl aged 1 11/12 year with the unusual combination of McCune-Albright syndrome (polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, cutaneous pigmentation and precocious puberty), hyperthyroidism and vitamin d-resistant rickets is described. Urinary estrogens are increased, while serum LH and FSH responses to LH-RH are subnormal. Thyroid hormone levels in serum and 131I thyroidal uptake are increased, while TSH response to TRH is decreased. serum phosphorus level is low and phosphate clearance high, while PTH is within normal range. Basal GH level and GH responses to various stimulations are high, but high basal GH is suppressed by oral glucose. The oral glucose tolerance test shows normal blood glucose with hypersecretion of insulin. These data suggest that the common pathogenesis of the various aspects of the syndrome is a hypersensitivity of the target organs, which include the pituitary, the thyroid, the gonads, the pancreatic islet cells and the proximal tubules of the kidney.
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