Cases reported "Hyperparathyroidism"

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1/179. Mediastinal parathyroid cysts revisited.

    BACKGROUND: A case of a functioning mediastinal cyst is presented. methods: A comprehensive review of the literature found 93 patients in whom a parathyroid cyst or cysts extended into, or was completely contained within, the mediastinum. Including our patient, there were 46 men and 45 women, and the gender was not recorded in three. RESULTS: The cysts were located in the anterosuperior region in 56 patients, in the middle region of the mediastinum in 26, and in the anterior, prevascular region in 12. Thirty-nine patients had functioning cysts associated with hyperparathyroidism of varying severity; seven patients presented with a hypercalcemic crisis. Local symptomatology consisted of a neck mass, respiratory distress, and occasional dysphagia or chest pain. recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis was present in nine patients, and innominate vein compression or thrombosis was present in two. The cysts in all but four patients were treated by open surgical excision; two were treated by thoracoscopy, and two patients only had fine-needle aspiration of the cyst. The cyst was excised via a cervical approach in 67 patients and by a thoracotomy or median sternotomy or a variation thereof in 23. There was no operative mortality and morbidity was minimal. CONCLUSION: Surgical resection was successful in all and remains the treatment of choice for mediastinal parathyroid cysts.
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2/179. color-Doppler in the imaging work-up of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare disease that must be suspected in all the cases of recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis, and that may be totally corrected by surgery. The imaging techniques permit to locate the hyperplastic gland or adenoma before intervention, but their usefulness in patients without a history of previous neck surgery is still debated. Several imaging techniques have been proposed with the aim of locating parathyroid hyperfunctioning glands, including high resolution sonography (US) with color-Doppler (CD), scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report here a case of recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis sustained by PHP, which demonstrates how US coupled with CD and echocontrast enhancement is useful in the preoperative location of parathyroid glands. US is the first choice technique in the evaluation of PHP because it is less expensive and useful in detailing lesions of the neck when carried out by a skilled operator. CD should be regarded as a useful complement of US enhancing its sensitivity (80 vs 90%) especially in the cases of associated thyroid gland diseases. Tc-99m SESTAMIBI scintigraphy coupled with MRI is mandatory in high risk surgical patients, namely in those undergoing repeated neck surgery. In conclusion, considering that surgeon must explore all the four parathyroid glands (because of the possibility of multiple adenomas or hyperplasia) a well definite location of the adenomatous lesion may reduce the risks and the time of intervention, and allow the use of alternative procedures, such as videoscopic surgery. On this view and in terms of economy, only US and CD coupled with Tc-99 SESTAMIBI scintigraphy should be considered before surgery.
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3/179. Complementary nature of radiotracer parathyroid imaging and intraoperative parathyroid hormone assays in the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroid disease: case report and review.

    PURPOSE: This article illustrates the complementary nature of preoperative radionuclide parathyroid imaging and intraoperative rapid parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays in primary hyperparathyroid disease. The authors review the literature on these procedures and compare this protocol and its cost-effectiveness with those of the classic four-gland exploration. MATERIALS AND methods: Preoperative parathyroid imaging with Tc-99m MIBI and intraoperative rapid PTH assays were performed at the time of neck exploration. RESULTS: One of two parathyroid adenomas seen on radionuclide images would have been missed if the authors had relied solely on the initial decrease in PTH assay value to a normal level. CONCLUSIONS: Tc-99m MIBI imaging and intraoperative rapid PTH assays are complementary; when used together, they lessen the likelihood that abnormal parathyroid glands will be overlooked. This experience and that of others suggest these combined procedures are cost-effective.
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4/179. Use of technetium tc 99m sestamibi scintigraphy for recurrent tertiary hyperparathyroidism from a parathyroid forearm graft.

    technetium tc 99m sestamibi scintigraphy is a sensitive technique for localizing recurrent parathyroid disease in the neck or mediastinum. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with recurrent tertiary hyperparathyroidism after total parathyroidectomy. technetium tc 99m sestamibi images of the neck and mediastinum were negative; however, images of the right arm revealed a hyperfunctioning parathyroid autotransplant. Partial resection of the autograft resulted in prompt resolution of the hyperparathyroidism.
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5/179. Hyperfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma.

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is rarely caused by carcinoma. We report a patient who manifested many of the clinical and radiographic features of the disease. When encountering symptomatic hypercalcemia with or without a palpable neck mass, carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Patient survival depends on an aggressive surgical approach to the primary lesion and recurrent disease.
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6/179. Primary hyperparathyroidism in a twin pregnancy and review of fetal/maternal calcium homeostasis.

    BACKGROUND: hyperparathyroidism occurs rarely in pregnancy; this is the first reported case in a twin gestation. Management of this unusual case is described and an overview of fetal/maternal calcium homeostasis is discussed. methods: The patient presented at 33 weeks' gestation with hypertension and premature labor. serum calcium and phosphorus were 14.6 and 1.7 mg/dL, respectively. An intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 243 pg/mL (normal, 10-65). RESULTS: The patient was treated with parenteral saline hydration and oral phosphate supplementation that was continued through week 37. Although the calcium remained elevated between 12.6 and 13.3 mg/dL, medical therapy was continued because of the risks of surgery in the third trimester. Alternative medical treatments (bisphosphonates, calcitonin) were considered ill advised in pregnancy. The patient remained asymptomatic without further labor, and at week 37, fraternal twins were delivered by cesarean section. The infants were monitored closely and experienced no hypocalcemic symptoms after delivery. Postpartum, the mother's parathyroid scan and ultrasound were negative. She underwent neck exploration and a single 700-mg adenoma was removed. Transient asymptomatic hypocalcemia (7.5 mg/dL) occurred postoperatively, and she was placed on oral calcium (1500 mg/day) and calcitriol (0.25 mg/day). These were stopped at 8 weeks, when both PTH and parathyroid hormone-related peptide levels were normal. CONCLUSION: Mother and infants continue to do well after 18 months. This case provides an interesting setting to consider the interrelationships between elevated maternal PTH and the fetal/placental factors that regulate calcium metabolism in pregnancy.
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7/179. hyperparathyroidism after thyroid surgery and autotransplantation of histologically normal parathyroid glands.

    BACKGROUND: Parathyroid autotransplantation is a well-established method to prevent hypoparathyroidism during parathyroid and thyroid operations. The reported success rate of parathyroid autotransplantation ranges from 75% to 100%. Recurrent hyperparathyroidism may develop after parathyroid autotransplantation, especially after the transplantation of hyperplastic or adenomatous parathyroid tissue. hyperparathyroidism recurs most frequently after subtotal parathyroidectomy or total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation, in patients with renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism, and in patients with familial primary hyperparathyroidism or MEN I or MEN II syndrome. We report three patients who experienced primary hyperparathyroidism after autotransplantation of normal parathyroid tissue during thyroid operations (two patients) or after a long period of hypoparathyroidism. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed our records from 1983 to May 1998 and identified three patients in whom hyperparathyroidism developed after thyroid operations. RESULTS: One patient had a thyroidectomy with left modified radical neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer, followed by radioiodine ablative therapy. Two patients had thyroid operations for benign thyroid disease. One of these patients had a history of radiation exposure for acne, and in the other one secondary hyperparathyroidism arose 6 years after a thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism. CONCLUSIONS: Our study documents that hyperparathyroidism may develop after autotransplantation of histologically normal parathyroid tissue and after a period of hypoparathyroidism after thyroid operations. For this reason, it is important to mark the site of the parathyroid transplantation.
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8/179. Cutaneous spreading of parathyroid carcinoma after fine needle aspiration cytology.

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of suspect parathyroid adenomas is sometimes used for the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). FNAC complications are rare or mild. We describe the first case in literature of cutaneous spread of parathyroid carcinoma after FNAC. CASE: A woman underwent a neck ultrasound which revealed a solid hypoechogenic nodule of 1.5 cm at the level of the inferior pole of the right thyroid. In the same time a FNAC of the nodule was performed. Cytology showed no atypical cells. Successively PHPT was diagnosed and a few weeks later the patient had a subcutaneous lump in the same area of FNAC. The patient underwent surgery and histology of the specimen showed a differentiated parathyroid carcinoma. The postoperative course was regular and calcium and parathormone resulted normal. CONCLUSION: The use of FNAC should be carefully assessed in the presence of suspect parathyroid carcinoma, because this could cause a possible diffusion of a parathyroid carcinoma along the needle tract.
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9/179. Serial changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover after correction of secondary hyperparathyroidism in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib.

    pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by primarily renal resistance to the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, as an indication of normal PTH responsiveness in bone, some patients with PHP develop skeletal disease because of longstanding secondary hyperparathyroidism. A patient is described with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, marked secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an increased alkaline phosphatase level. Subsequent evaluation revealed a diagnosis of PHP type Ib. The patient had radiographic evidence of skeletal disease caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism. A urinary level of N-telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen (NTX) was elevated markedly. Bone mineral density (BMD) was in the normal range at all measured sites, with BMD at the spine being higher than at the femur and distal radius. Treatment was initiated with calcium and calcitriol. Seven months later, calcium and PTH levels had normalized. The level of urinary NTX fell by 83%. Spinal BMD improved by 15%, and BMD at the femoral neck improved by 11%. Radial BMD was unchanged. This case emphasizes the importance of evaluating patients with PHP for hyperparathyroid bone disease and shows that correction of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with PHP can result in a significant suppression of previously accelerated bone turnover and to substantial gains in BMD at sites containing a major percentage of cancellous bone. The case also implies that assessment of bone turnover with urinary NTX and measurement of BMD with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) may be useful in following the response of the skeleton to therapy in these patients and suggests the need for more studies of both NTX and BMD in patients with PHP.
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10/179. Documented hyperparathyroidism of thirty-six years' duration.

    The fascinating history of the first Memorial Hospital patient who was diagnosed as having hyperparathyroidism is reviewed. The illness presented as a cystic mass in a femur in 1929, which was treated with radiation. When the patient was first seen at Memorial Hospital in 1931, the diagnosis of osteitis fibrosa cystica was made; serum calcium was 14 mg/100 ml. In 1932, 6 years after Mandl performed the first parathyroidectomy ever for osteitis fibrosa cystica, this patient's neck was explored, and a right hemithyroidectomy was done, with removal of two normal parathyroid glands. The parathyroid tumor was finally located and partially removed in 1937 after a second failure at neck exploration in 1936. Correspondence between Dr. Edward D. Churchill at the massachusetts General Hospital and Dr. Bradley Coley at Memorial Hospital indicated the concern at that time about uncontrollable tetany, which had been fatal in some contemporary cases and which had led to the practice of only partially removing the tumor. Following this, the patient was observed with documented hypercalcemia and chemical evidence of hyperparathyrodism until age 79. The physical and chemical abnormalities over the years up to and including her last exam are presented. The case is important not only from the historical viewpoint, but because it lends a perspective to long-term parathyroid disease, which is becoming less appreciated in this day of the routine serum calcium by SMA-12 screening. The question of partial parathyroidectomy for adenoma or hyperplasia is reviewed, and the question of observation of patients with mild hypercalcemia who probably have parathyroid tumors is discussed.
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