Cases reported "Hyperparathyroidism"

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1/181. Mediastinal parathyroid cysts revisited.

    BACKGROUND: A case of a functioning mediastinal cyst is presented. methods: A comprehensive review of the literature found 93 patients in whom a parathyroid cyst or cysts extended into, or was completely contained within, the mediastinum. Including our patient, there were 46 men and 45 women, and the gender was not recorded in three. RESULTS: The cysts were located in the anterosuperior region in 56 patients, in the middle region of the mediastinum in 26, and in the anterior, prevascular region in 12. Thirty-nine patients had functioning cysts associated with hyperparathyroidism of varying severity; seven patients presented with a hypercalcemic crisis. Local symptomatology consisted of a neck mass, respiratory distress, and occasional dysphagia or chest pain. recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis was present in nine patients, and innominate vein compression or thrombosis was present in two. The cysts in all but four patients were treated by open surgical excision; two were treated by thoracoscopy, and two patients only had fine-needle aspiration of the cyst. The cyst was excised via a cervical approach in 67 patients and by a thoracotomy or median sternotomy or a variation thereof in 23. There was no operative mortality and morbidity was minimal. CONCLUSION: Surgical resection was successful in all and remains the treatment of choice for mediastinal parathyroid cysts.
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2/181. Inappropriate elevation of intact PTH in the presence of normocalcemia after successful surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.

    We describe here a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism who had high serum intact PTH levels for over 16 months after parathyroidectomy without signs of recurrence or persistence of the disease. The patient was a 48-year-old female who appeared well nourished (body mass index, 23.7). She was received subtotal gastrectomy as treatment for a duodenal ulcer at 44 years and 5 months old and had reached menopaused at 46 years of age. hypercalcemia and a high serum intact PTH level were pointed out three months before admission to our institute. A bone densitometric study revealed that the bone mass of the lumbar spine was extremely reduced (0.636 g/cm2, Z score, -2.17) preoperatively and had not increased 29.5 months after parathyroidal adenomectomy (0.656 g/cm2, Z score, -1.97). hyperparathyroidism, menopause and gastrectomy may have together contributed to the reduced bone mass. The postoperative persistently increased PTH levels in our patient suggest that the remaining parathyroid glands could have been altered during hypercalcemia, causing an increase in the set-point of PTH secretion by serum calcium or a decrease in the renal responsiveness to PTH during the disease.
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3/181. Coincidence of hot thyroid nodules and primary hyperparathyroidism.

    hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with hypercalcemia, which usually subsides after successful treatment of hyperthyroidism. Moreover, thyroid nodules are frequently detected by preoperative thyroid ultrasound in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Sensitised by the observation of a patient with coexisting hyperthyroidism and hyperparathyroidism we prospectively evaluated thyroid nodules in euthyroid patients with hyperparathyroidism by thyroid scintigraphy. Whereas the first patient with hyperparathyroidism was hyperthyroid the subsequent four patients with hyperparathyroidism and thyroid nodules had normal fT3 and fT4. Two patients had hypercalcemia and nephroureterolithiasis. Three patients suffered from hypercalcemia and bone pain due to osteoporosis. In the hyperthyroid patient hypercalcemia persisted after euthyroidism was achieved intact parathyroid hormone was found to be elevated. Subsequently, thyroid nodules, detected by preoperative ultrasound in four euthyroid patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, were identified as compensated hot nodules by thyroid scintigraphy. All patients underwent combined subtotal thyroidectomy and parathyroid resection. histology showed hyperplastic parathyroid glands in one patient and a single parathyroid adenoma in four cases. Postoperatively calcium and PTH levels returned to normal and TSH levels increased in all patients. Persistence of hypercalcemia after successful treatment of hyperthyroidism should be reason for the determination of parathyroid hormone. Thyroid nodules detected by preoperative ultrasound in patients with hyperparathyroidism living in areas of iodine deficiency should be further evaluated by scintigraphy even if TSH is normal. In the case of hot thyroid nodules both parathyroid and partial thyroid resection should be performed.
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4/181. Hyperfunctioning intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma: report of two cases.

    We report herein two cases of intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma, which is a rare condition in patients with hyperparathyroidism. In the first patient, an excised intrathyroid nodule was diagnosed to be parathyroid adenoma postoperatively. In the second patient, preoperative localization studies suggested the possibility of an intrathyroid adenoma. When a pathological gland is not found during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, an ectopic parathyroid gland including an intrathyroid adenoma should thus be considered.
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5/181. Sigmoid colon cancer associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: report of a case.

    We present herein a case of sigmoid colon cancer associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). PHP is known to be associated with malignancy, and decreased intracolonic calcium (Ca) resulting from increased vitamin d (VD) levels may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. PHP was diagnosed in this patient by preoperative screening blood chemistry examination. The blood level of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) was elevated and a parathyroid gland scintigram demonstrated abnormal uptake near the right lower lobe of the thyroid. There was no evidence of bone metastasis, and a sigmoid colectomy was performed with curative intent. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course without a critical elevation of the serum Ca level. This case report suggests that a relationship exists between PHP and colon cancer, and the possible mechanisms of this association are presented in our discussion.
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6/181. color-Doppler in the imaging work-up of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare disease that must be suspected in all the cases of recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis, and that may be totally corrected by surgery. The imaging techniques permit to locate the hyperplastic gland or adenoma before intervention, but their usefulness in patients without a history of previous neck surgery is still debated. Several imaging techniques have been proposed with the aim of locating parathyroid hyperfunctioning glands, including high resolution sonography (US) with color-Doppler (CD), scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report here a case of recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis sustained by PHP, which demonstrates how US coupled with CD and echocontrast enhancement is useful in the preoperative location of parathyroid glands. US is the first choice technique in the evaluation of PHP because it is less expensive and useful in detailing lesions of the neck when carried out by a skilled operator. CD should be regarded as a useful complement of US enhancing its sensitivity (80 vs 90%) especially in the cases of associated thyroid gland diseases. Tc-99m SESTAMIBI scintigraphy coupled with MRI is mandatory in high risk surgical patients, namely in those undergoing repeated neck surgery. In conclusion, considering that surgeon must explore all the four parathyroid glands (because of the possibility of multiple adenomas or hyperplasia) a well definite location of the adenomatous lesion may reduce the risks and the time of intervention, and allow the use of alternative procedures, such as videoscopic surgery. On this view and in terms of economy, only US and CD coupled with Tc-99 SESTAMIBI scintigraphy should be considered before surgery.
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7/181. Complementary nature of radiotracer parathyroid imaging and intraoperative parathyroid hormone assays in the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroid disease: case report and review.

    PURPOSE: This article illustrates the complementary nature of preoperative radionuclide parathyroid imaging and intraoperative rapid parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays in primary hyperparathyroid disease. The authors review the literature on these procedures and compare this protocol and its cost-effectiveness with those of the classic four-gland exploration. MATERIALS AND methods: Preoperative parathyroid imaging with Tc-99m MIBI and intraoperative rapid PTH assays were performed at the time of neck exploration. RESULTS: One of two parathyroid adenomas seen on radionuclide images would have been missed if the authors had relied solely on the initial decrease in PTH assay value to a normal level. CONCLUSIONS: Tc-99m MIBI imaging and intraoperative rapid PTH assays are complementary; when used together, they lessen the likelihood that abnormal parathyroid glands will be overlooked. This experience and that of others suggest these combined procedures are cost-effective.
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8/181. Primary hyperparathyroidism in a twin pregnancy and review of fetal/maternal calcium homeostasis.

    BACKGROUND: hyperparathyroidism occurs rarely in pregnancy; this is the first reported case in a twin gestation. Management of this unusual case is described and an overview of fetal/maternal calcium homeostasis is discussed. methods: The patient presented at 33 weeks' gestation with hypertension and premature labor. serum calcium and phosphorus were 14.6 and 1.7 mg/dL, respectively. An intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 243 pg/mL (normal, 10-65). RESULTS: The patient was treated with parenteral saline hydration and oral phosphate supplementation that was continued through week 37. Although the calcium remained elevated between 12.6 and 13.3 mg/dL, medical therapy was continued because of the risks of surgery in the third trimester. Alternative medical treatments (bisphosphonates, calcitonin) were considered ill advised in pregnancy. The patient remained asymptomatic without further labor, and at week 37, fraternal twins were delivered by cesarean section. The infants were monitored closely and experienced no hypocalcemic symptoms after delivery. Postpartum, the mother's parathyroid scan and ultrasound were negative. She underwent neck exploration and a single 700-mg adenoma was removed. Transient asymptomatic hypocalcemia (7.5 mg/dL) occurred postoperatively, and she was placed on oral calcium (1500 mg/day) and calcitriol (0.25 mg/day). These were stopped at 8 weeks, when both PTH and parathyroid hormone-related peptide levels were normal. CONCLUSION: Mother and infants continue to do well after 18 months. This case provides an interesting setting to consider the interrelationships between elevated maternal PTH and the fetal/placental factors that regulate calcium metabolism in pregnancy.
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9/181. Recurrent hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland demonstrated on radionuclide imaging and an intraoperative gamma probe.

    radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m MIBI is the preferred mode of parathyroid localization in current practice. It also successfully identifies hyperfunctioning autotransplanted parathyroid tissue. The authors report a case with recurrent hyperparathyroidism after total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation in the forearm. Double-phase Tc-99m MIBI imaging successfully localized the hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue, which was missed by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography. In addition, the parathyroid tissue was localized using an intraoperative probe at subsequent surgery.
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10/181. Severe pancreatitis after parathyroidectomy.

    Cope showed in 1957 that pancreatitis may be the presenting symptom in hyperparathyroidism. Since then, the literature has reported a coincidence of primary hyperparathyroidism and pancreatitis between 1% and 19%, but the true relationship has not been fully established. When severe pancreatitis follows parathyroidectomy, a condition familiar to parathyroid surgeons, reports are mostly anecdotal and by many authors considered to be coincidental. We present the case history of a 58-year-old man with a longstanding history of untreated primary hyperparathyroidism who developed severe pancreatitis immediately after removal of a 400-mg parathyroid adenoma. He was the first in a series of 108 operated patients to develop this complication. His preoperative levels of parathormone and serum calcium were the highest in our material. We believe that pancreatitis after parathyroidectomy is a real but rare complication that might be predicted by preoperative high values of serum calcium and parathormone.
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