Cases reported "Hyperplasia"

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1/112. Endoscopically assisted removal of unilateral coronoid process hyperplasia.

    Coronoid process hyperplasia (CPH) is an uncommon disorder characterized by an enlarged coronoid process impinging against the posterior aspect of the zygomatic arch. Young male adults are usually affected, presenting with limited mouth opening, which is typically painless and progressive in nature. The diagnosis of true CPH is established by the findings of (1) uniform coronoid enlargement on radiographic examination and (2) normal bone structure on histopathological examination (i.e., the specimen should be free of any neoplastic growth, such as the previously reported cases of coronoid osteomas, osteochondromas, or exostoses). The treatment is mainly surgical, by means of a coronoidectomy. An intraoral approach is mostly preferred for this procedure to avoid an external scar. However, to avoid the drawbacks of this approach, such as limited exposure and the risk of hematoma and subsequent fibrosis, an extraoral approach may be indicated. This report describes a case of true unilateral CPH in a 17-year-old boy who presented with progressive limited mouth opening in the absence of any pain. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a uniformly enlarged right coronoid process. A coronoidectomy was performed with the aid of endoscopic systems, approaching via two short incisions in the temporal scalp. Histopathological examination of the specimen demonstrated essentially a normal bony structure with no evidence of a neoplasm. The authors present the endoscopically assisted technique of coronoid process excision as an alternative method of surgical treatment of CPH and any mass of the coronoid process in general. With this method, the incision is much shorter than a conventional coronal incision and thus morbidity is diminished considerably.
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2/112. A case of Schnitzler's syndrome with nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver.

    Schnitzler's syndrome is a rare condition of urticaria, macroglobulinemia, and sclerotic bone lesions. We report a case in a 70-year-old man in whom inflammatory polyarthralgia was followed by a nonpruritic urticarial eruption with a moderate decline in general health. Laboratory tests showed inflammation and a modest isolated peak of monoclonal IgM kappa. There was no evidence of waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Schnitzler's syndrome was considered. However, an ultrasound scan of the abdomen done because of mild gamma-glutamyl-transferase elevation disclosed multiple hepatic lesions. The liver histology showed incipient nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Only about 30 cases of Schnitzler's syndrome have been reported since the seminal description in 1972. Hepatic involvement was a common but nonspecific finding, and we found no cases with nodular regenerative hyperplasia. However, this abnormality is often found in patients with autoimmune or hematological disorders. The pathogenesis of Schnitzler's syndrome remains unknown, but the possibility of progression to a hematological malignancy requires prolonged follow-up.
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3/112. liver cirrhosis with marked thrombocytopenia and highly elevated serum thrombopoietin levels.

    Three patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and a bleeding tendency due to marked thrombocytopenia of less than 20 x 10(9)/l were admitted to our hospital for further examination. bone marrow examination revealed megakaryocytic hypoplasia in all three patients. All patients exhibited amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenic purpura, myelodysplastic syndrome, or bone marrow hypoplasia. 111In-labeled platelet kinetic studies revealed decreased platelet production in all patients. Although serum thrombopoietin (sTPO) levels are usually within the normal level in patients with LC, the sTPO levels of our patients were about 10 times higher than the levels of normal subjects (1.22 /- 0.37 fmol/ml): 13.34, 16.79, and 10.46 fmol/ml, respectively. These sTPO data supported our findings of decreased megakaryopoiesis. Our findings suggest that examination of sTPO levels is useful in determining the etiology of marked thrombocytopenia in LC patients.
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4/112. Dizygotic twin sisters with myelokathexis: mechanism of its neutropenia.

    Dizygotic twin sisters were first found to have neutropenia at 1 year of age when evaluated for recurrent pulmonary infections. Since then they have remained neutropenic (0.05 approximately 0.5 x 10(9)/l). Despite of their neutropenia, myeloid hyperplasia was evident on a marrow smear examination, and a number of cells were hypersegmented with fine interlobular bridging with chromatin strands and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Electron microscopy showed apoptotic cells with condensed nuclei and apoptotic bodies in the cytoplasm. Although life span, hydrogen peroxide production, phagocytosis, spreading, and chemotaxis of peripheral neutrophils were normal, the survival of bone marrow neutrophils in both infants was markedly decreased when compared with that of normal bone marrow neutrophils. During the bone marrow culture apoptotic neutrophils were observed at an earlier stage in both patients than in normal controls, biochemically and morphologically. Morphology of bone marrow neutrophils in both patients resembled that of cultured control bone marrow neutrophils. Peripheral neutropenia and appearance of characteristic neutrophils in the bone marrow in myelokathexis are considered to be an expression of apoptosis of bone marrow neutrophils.
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5/112. Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid: a report of two cases with nuclear imaging-pathologic correlation.

    We describe two cases of isolated langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the thyroid gland, one of which was found in conjunction with an incidental papillary carcinoma. The first case was that of a 43-year-old man who presented with a 1- to 2-cm nodule within the left lobe of the thyroid. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed atypical cells with convoluted nuclei in a background of eosinophils and lymphocytes. The findings prompted a recommendation for excision secondary to the high suspicion of a hematologic malignancy. Histologic sections demonstrated LCH in association with a small focus of papillary carcinoma. The second case involved a 43-year-old woman who presented with a 1.8-cm nodule within the right lobe of the thyroid. Fine-needle aspiration in this case demonstrated abundant hemosiderin-laden macrophages, occasional lymphocytes, and a single benign sheet of follicular cells. No eosinophils were seen; however, a single group of atypical histiocytic cells with cleaved nuclei was noted. The nodule was subsequently resected. Histologic examination demonstrated LCH in association with follicular nodular hyperplasia with cystic degeneration. Immunohistochemical studies were performed in both cases, revealing CD1a and S100 immunoreactivity in the Langerhans' cells. Although LCH may occur as a manifestation of systemic disease, its occurrence as an isolated finding in the thyroid is rare. Its occurrence in association with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is even more uncommon. We present two cases of isolated LCH of the thyroid, one of which was found in association with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The cytologic, histologic, immunohistochemical, and radiologic features are described in each case. The ultrastructural findings from the first case are also presented.
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keywords = macrophage
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6/112. Fulminant parvovirus infection following erythropoietin treatment in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We report the case of a 41-year-old black man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who developed a severe chronic anemia due to parvovirus infection. Bone marrow biopsy revealed erythroid aplasia. The infectious nature of the anemia was not recognized, and the patient was treated with erythropoietin. The patient's reticulocyte response was inadequate, however, and he remained anemic. A second bone marrow biopsy showed erythroid hyperplasia and prominent intranuclear parvovirus inclusions within erythroid progenitors. erythropoietin was discontinued and was followed by a course of intravenous immunoglobulin, which resulted in rapid correction of anemia. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of fulminant human parvovirus infection exacerbated by erythropoietin administration and documented by sequential bone marrow histologic examination. This case illustrates the critical importance of considering parvovirus in the etiology of chronic anemia with erythroid aplasia in immunocompromised patients.
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keywords = bone
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7/112. A variant of myelokathexis with hypogammaglobulinemia: lymphocytes as well as neutrophils may reverse in response to infections.

    A 7-year-old boy with prolonged and marked leukopenia diagnosed at 6 months of age is described. The polymorphonuclear cells presented no hypersegmented nuclei or concentrated nuclear chromatin, although vacuolated myeloid cells appeared in bone marrow smears. neutrophils reversed in response to administration of G-CSF. His leukocyte counts were 400-1000/microL during afebrile periods and increased to 2000-3000/microL in response to infections. The increased leukocyte was usually neutrophils, but lymphocytes also increased at EB-virus infection. The serum IgG decreased gradually and was 364 mg/dL at 7 years of age. Antibody responses were normal and recurrent otitis media has been the patient's only problem. Granulocytopenia with hypogammaglobulinemia of this patient mimics myelokathexis with hypogammaglobulinemia, and lymphocytes also increased at viral infections.
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8/112. Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia in a postmenopausal woman with tuberous sclerosis.

    We report a peculiar case of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH) without association of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) in a 56-year-old postmenopausal woman with tuberous sclerosis. This case is surmised to be a forme fruste of tuberous sclerosis. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple micronodules, measuring up to 5 mm in size, present in the bilateral lung fields, but no cystic changes. A proliferation of pleomorphic type-II pneumocytes lining the thickened alveolar septa in an adenomatoid pattern, with an associated increase in alveolar macrophages, was observed without typical nuclear atypia. In fully developed lesions, the ingrowth of more proliferating type-II pneumocytes into the thickened alveolar septa and macrophages filling the alveolar lumens were characteristic findings. Proliferation of immature smooth muscle cells suggesting LAM was not observed. Positive immunohistochemical stains for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and surfactant apoproteins A and B, and negative staining for HMB45, alpha-1 smooth muscle actin, desmin, and carcinoembryonic antigen confirmed the characteristics of alveolar lining cells in each MMPH lesion. MMPH associated with tuberous sclerosis in the postmenopausal woman appears to be similar to that described in premenopausal women. The present case is familial rather than sporadic and suggests no relationship between the development of MMPH and the underlying hormonal state.
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ranking = 33.180864122117
keywords = macrophage
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9/112. Secondary polycythemia associated with idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    A 58-year-old male patient had secondary polycythemia associated with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. The renal biopsy revealed membranous nephropathy, and the bone marrow biopsy disclosed hypercellular marrow with mild panhyperplasia. The concentration of serum erythropoietin was 8.5 mU/ml. The erythrocytosis was characterized by an increased red cell volume (40.2 ml/kg) and normal arterial oxygen saturation. There were no associated lesions that could induce secondary polycythemia, except the biopsy-proven membranous nephropathy. He was treated with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide, and the nephrotic syndrome was partially remitted after 6 weeks. With partial remission of nephrotic syndrome, the erythrocytosis was resolved. This case illustrates the rarely reported association of the nephrotic syndrome and erythrocytosis, and the resolution of erythrocytosis with improvement of nephrotic syndrome.
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10/112. Subpontic osseous hyperplasia: a case report.

    Subpontic osseous hyperplasia is an ectopic growth of bone occurring on the edentulous ridge beneath a fixed partial denture replacing a mandibular first molar. A 56-year-old woman experienced an enlargement of the hard and soft tissues beneath the pontic region of a fixed partial denture replacing her mandibular left first molar. Following removal of the fixed partial denture, the bony enlargement was surgically removed, and the bony fragments were submitted for histologic analysis, which demonstrated mature lamellar bone and appositional growth. One year postoperatively, there has been no recurrence of the lesion. The possible etiologies and treatment modalities are reviewed and a rationale for treatment is presented.
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