Cases reported "Hypersensitivity, Delayed"

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1/321. Delayed hypersensitivity to enoxaparin.

    A 65-year-old woman experienced immediate itchy erythematous patches at the subcutaneous injection sites of sodium enoxaparin. An erythematous and infiltrated 40 x 20 mm lesion on the abdominal wall could be observed at the site of enoxaparin injection when she was referred to our clinic 48 h after injection. Lesions subsided spontaneously within 1 week. She had been on this treatment 1 and 3 years before without any adverse reaction. To clarify the nature of the reaction, epicutaneous tests with sodium enoxaparin, calcium nadroparin and calcium heparin were performed, all with negative results. Skin prick test with sodium enoxaparin was also negative. biopsy of the cutaneous lesion showed spongiotic dermatitis, strongly suggesting a delayed hypersensitivity mechanism. We report here on a new case of delayed hypersensitivity to enoxaparin. Being female, overweight and having prolonged application of the drug were suggested risk factors present in our patient. biopsy was essential for diagnosis. Although type IV hypersensitivity reactions to enoxaparin are rare, we should start to suspect this condition in order not to underdiagnose it. ( info)

2/321. Fibroin allergy. IgE mediated hypersensitivity to silk suture materials.

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity with granulomatous lesions to silk sutures is rather rare. Yet, braided silk sutures often act as a non-immunologic foreign-body and cause a granulomatous inflammatory reaction years after surgery. We report here a case of recurrent granulomas with remarkable infiltration of eosinophils that may have resulted from an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to silk fibroin, a component of the braided silk suture. Under normal circumstances exposure to fibroin is rather rare. Therefore, the present patient may have developed this reaction to the silk sutures used in a previous surgery. ( info)

3/321. Late-type allergy to the X-ray contrast medium Solutrast (iopamidol).

    In the past few years, there have been an increasing number of publications on delayed intolerance reactions, including rashes, following the use of X-ray contrast media. We report a patient in whom infiltrated erythema of the face and generalized maculopapular rashes occurred on 2 occasions, within 1 day, following the use of the X-ray contrast medium Solutrast (iopamidol) for coronary angiography. The allergological investigations for clarification included prick tests and patch tests using a series of contrast media, as well as individual intravenous provocation tests. We found the cause to be a late-type allergy to the active substance iopamidol contained in the contrast medium Solutrast. We found a concomitant cross-reactivity to the contrast media iopromid and iomeprol. All 3 contrast media represent the monomeric, non-ionic type. ( info)

4/321. Common allergens in avian meats.

    BACKGROUND: Reports of allergy to bird meats are uncommon, and most have been in patients with "bird-egg syndrome." OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate 3 patients who reported allergic reactions to several avian meats, but who denied allergic reactions to eating eggs. The patients required yellow fever vaccine for entry into the military. methods: patients were skin tested with commercial extracts of chicken, turkey, and egg, as well as with crude extracts made from dove and quail meat, and with yellow fever vaccine. Immunoblots for IgE antibody were performed by using the same materials used for skin testing plus extracts of duck and goose meat. RESULTS: skin tests were positive in all 3 patients to chicken, turkey, dove, quail, and yellow fever vaccine and negative to egg. This included some positive skin test responses to bird meats the patients denied ever having eaten. The vaccine was administered in graded doses. Immunoblots revealed IgE binding to several proteins of similar molecular weights in all of the avian meats but not to egg or yellow fever vaccine. Again, this included IgE antibody to some bird meats the patients denied ever having eaten. CONCLUSION: patients allergic to one bird meat may be allergic to others, including game birds, probably because of cross-reacting allergens. Such patients may have to exercise caution even when eating bird meats they have not previously ingested. The relationship of this allergy to yellow fever vaccine, if any, remains to be determined. ( info)

5/321. Cutaneous allergic reaction to intramuscular vitamin K1.

    A 40-year-old woman with no pre-existing hepatic disease developed a cutaneous allergic reaction to intramuscular vitamin K1. She received this medication prophylactically prior to surgery, developed severe localized, and subsequently generalized, dermatitis, beginning 5 days after administration of the Konakion Cremophor-EL form of vitamin K1 by intramuscular injection at four sites on her thighs. Investigation by patch and intradermal testing revealed delayed-type hypersensitivity to Konakion Cremophor-EL, Konakion Mixed micelles and pure vitamin K1, but not Cremophor-EL vehicle alone. This case is unusual because the patient was also shown to be patch test positive to vitamin K3 sodium bisulfite. ( info)

6/321. Polymorphic light eruption occurring in common variable hypogammaglobulinaemia, and resolving with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

    A 55-year-old woman with a past history of lower respiratory tract infections presented with a photosensitive eruption. Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) was diagnosed on the basis of the temporal relationship to sun exposure and the diagnosis was supported by positive monochromator irradiation tests in the ultraviolet A wavelength spectrum. Investigation of the patient's immune status identified low levels of all immunoglobulin (Ig) subtypes consistent with common variable hypogammaglobulinaemia. Intravenous Ig replacement therapy, instituted to minimize risks from bacterial infections, was commenced and over the ensuing months resulted in a complete resolution of the PLE. PLE is considered to represent a type IV hypersensitivity reaction directed against a cutaneous autoantigen induced by exposure to ultraviolet light. In PLE, nonspecific immunomodulatory mechanisms of intravenous Ig may be active, such as a reduction in the synthesis of cytokines and a blockage of the IgG Fc receptors on macrophages. ( info)

7/321. phenytoin sensitivity in a case of phenytoin-associated Hodgkin's disease.

    The case of a patient who developed Hodgkin's disease three years after commencement of therapy with phenytoin is presented. Humoral and cellular immunological capacity were significantly depressed. phenytoin caused a striking increase in dna synthesis when lymphocytes were culture in the presence of this drug, in contrast to significant inhibition in the lymphocytes of control subjects. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that both chronic antigenic stimulation and immunosuppression by phenytoin and involved in the induction of lymphoma. ( info)

8/321. Analysis of a chronic myelogenous leukemia patient vaccinated with leukemic dendritic cells following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to be the most potent antigen-presenting cells and may be important in the induction of anti-leukemia specific T cell responses. In this preliminary clinical study, a patient with chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) was vaccinated with autologous leukemic DCs following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). In an in vitro study, leukemic DCs were generated using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-4 from granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized PBSC fraction of this patient, and were found to be Ph1 , and to possess the morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of mature DCs. These cells could also elicit antigen specific immune responses, including a vigorous cytotoxicity specific to CML cells. In the clinical experiment, we obtained evidence that infused leukemic DCs could induce T cell clones expressing the same T cell receptor usage as a cytotoxic T cell line, suggesting that the immune repertoire includes tumor-reactive T cells. These cytotoxic T lymphocytes are activated in vivo. The vaccination of leukemic DC caused a decrease in the number of Ph1 cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow. These results indicate that the activity is an immunologically mediated phenomenon and vaccination therapy with leukemic DC following autologous PBSCT may be effective in treating CML. ( info)

9/321. Delayed cutaneous reaction to jellyfish.

    A 57-year-old woman presented with a widespread papulonodular eruption. The dermatitis had appeared about 1 week after her return from a trip to the Red Sea, where she had come into contact with a shoal of unidentified jellyfish; however, that contact had not been followed by cutaneous lesions and/or symptoms. The patient also stated that she had had previous contacts with jellyfish during other trips to exotic seaside resorts. The dermatitis was characterized by papulonodular lesions, round or oval in shape, of a few millimeters in diameter, with a color ranging from pink to red to brown, and with a smooth and regular surface. The lesions were grouped in an apparently random fashion (Fig. 1) or arranged linearly (Fig. 2). The patient complained of pruritus and burning. Histopathologic examination showed the presence of some necrotic keratinocytes; in the upper and mid dermis, edema and a predominantly perivascular and periadnexal lymphohistiocytic infiltrate, with numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, were observed (Fig. 3). The patient was treated with hydroxyzine (37.5 mg/day) and hydrocortisone butyrate, which resulted in the rapid disappearance of the symptoms; however, the cutaneous lesions persisted for about 3 weeks. ( info)

10/321. Search for anti-tumor response in a bone tumor patient with a long clinical history.

    Immunological studies are presented on a patient with a long clinical history suggesting the existence of a tumor-specific immune response. His tumor, first considered benign, progressed to a highly malignant osteosarcoma. Cell-mediated immune reactivity against biopsy cells and against tumor extract was detected in vitro by the autologous tumor stimulation test (ATS) and in vivo by the skin test. In one ATS-test with tumor extract, blastogenesis of T-cells was demonstrated. The amount of Ig(s) in consecutive biopsies increased. Biopsies taken in the later period of the disease stimulated only after trypsin treatment. This stimulation was inhibited by autologous serum or acid eluate of the biopsy. The inhibitory factor in the serum was not intact immunoglobin. Blood lymphocytes did not show a discriminatory or disease-related cytotoxicity, either directly or after co-cultivation with the tumor material. lymphocytes isolated from one biopsy were non-reactive in both the ATS and the cytotoxicity test. ( info)
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