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1/48. Occupational allergic rhinitis and contact urticaria caused by bishop's weed (ammi majus).

    Bishop's weed (ammi majus) has been known to induce toxic phytophotodermatitis. We now describe IgE-mediated rhinitis and contact urticaria caused by exposure to bishop's weed in a 31-year-old atopic female florist. A skin prick-prick test with bishop's weed flowers gave an 8-mm wheal, and the bishop's weed-specific IgE level in the patient's serum was 9.7 PRU/ml (RAST class 3). In an immunoblotting experiment with the patient's serum, nine IgE-binding protein bands with the molecular weights 19, 34, 39-41 (doublet), 52-61 (doublet), and >67 (triplet) kDa were detected in bishop's weed extract. The patient became symptomless after she had ceased to work as a florist.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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2/48. Two year follow-up of a garbage collector with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).

    BACKGROUND: Separate collection of biodegradable garbage and recyclable waste is expected to become mandatory in some western countries. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and separation might become endangered by high loads of bacteria and fungi. Case history and examination A 29 year old garbage collector involved in emptying so-called biological garbage complained of dyspnea, fever, and flu-like symptoms during work beginning in the summer of 1992. Chest x-ray showed streaky shadows near both hili reaching into the upper regions. IgE- and IgG-antibodies (CAP, Pharmacia, sweden) were strongly positive for aspergillus fumigatus with 90.5 kU/L and 186%, respectively. Total-IgE was also strongly elevated with 5430 kU/L. Bronchial challenge testing with commercially available aspergillus fumigatus extract resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. Two years later he was still symptomatic and antibodies persisted at lower levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our diagnosis was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) including asthmatic responses as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) due to exposure to moldy household waste. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and handling are exposed and at risk to develop sensitization to fungi due to exposure to dust of biodegradable waste. Further studies are necessary to show if separate collection of biodegradable waste increases the health risks due to exposure to bacteria and fungi in comparison to waste collection without separation.
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ranking = 3
keywords = exposure
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3/48. Occupational IgE-mediated allergy to tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle).

    BACKGROUND: We report on IgE-mediated allergy in a worker caused by tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle). These beetles lived in the "old" flour to which he was exposed in his work. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old, nonatopic mechanic in a rye crispbread factory developed rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthmatic symptoms, as well as urticaria on his wrists, lower arms, hands, neck, and face, during the maintenance and repair of machines contaminated by flour. This flour had been in and on the machines for a long time, and it contained small beetles. The patient did not suffer any symptoms when handling fresh, clean flour. RESULTS: skin prick tests with standard environmental allergens, storage mites, enzymes, flours, and molds were negative. A prick test with flour from the machines gave a 10-mm reaction. An open application of the same flour caused urticarial whealing on the exposed skin. Prick tests with fresh flour from the factory were negative. A prick test with minced T. confusum from the flour in the machines gave a 7-mm reaction. histamine hydrochloride 10 mg/ml gave a 7-mm reaction. Specific serum IgE antibodies to T. confusum were elevated at 17.2 kU/l. Prick tests with the flour from the machines were negative in five control patients. CONCLUSIONS: The patient had occupational contact urticaria, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthmatic symptoms from exposure to flour. His symptoms were caused by immediate allergy to the beetle T. confusum. Immediate allergy to this beetle has rarely been reported in connection with respiratory symptoms, but it may be more common. Contact urticaria from this source has not been reported before.
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4/48. asthma and rhinitis induced by exposure to raw green beans and chards.

    BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of IgE-mediated allergic reactions to foods occurs through ingestion, a few cases of unexpected allergic reactions to foods may occur through the exposure to airborne food allergen particles. methods: case reports. skin prick tests and serum-specific IgE (CAP-FEIA) were used to identify specific IgE antibodies. bronchial provocation tests were performed to determine the clinical relevance of inhaled exposure to raw and cooked green beans and raw chards. After demonstrating specific reactivity to them, SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of raw and cooked green beans were carried out to identify relevant antigens. RESULTS: Three women developed bronchial asthma and rhinitis after exposure to raw green beans, and one of them also when exposed to raw chards. All women tolerated ingestion of green beans. patients reported multiple episodes while handling these vegetables for cooking activities. Allergy to green beans and chards was demonstrated by skin testing and serum-specific IgE. Bronchial challenge test with these allergens showed positive responses to raw, but not cooked, green beans and chards. Oral food challenges with green beans (raw and cooked) and chards were negative in all patients. In order to further characterize the allergenic components of these extracts, SDS-PAGE and electroblotting studies were also performed. Immunoblots of raw and cooked green beans extract showed two IgE-binding bands with apparent molecular weights of 41.1 and 70.6 kD. Interestingly, a 47-kD IgE-binding protein was detected only in raw green bean extracts. CONCLUSIONS: We report three patients who developed asthma and rhinitis caused by exposure to raw, but not to cooked, green beans and chards in a non-occupational environment. Only minor differences of IgE reactivity between nitrocellulose-blotted raw and boiled green bean extract were found.
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ranking = 8
keywords = exposure
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5/48. A baker's occupational allergy to flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella).

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to insects is common. However, few reports cover occupational sensitization to flour moth (Ephestia [syn. Anagasta] kuehniella). We describe a baker who suffered from IgE-mediated occupational respiratory allergy to flour moth. methods: The skin prick test (SPT) and serum IgE tests were used to evaluate the patient's sensitivity to flour moth. Allergen cross-reactivity with mites was evaluated in IgE-inhibition studies. Clinical sensitivity was evaluated by nasal challenge test. Pulmonary function tests were repeatedly monitored. RESULTS: SPT with flour moth gave a 6-mm wheal, and an elevated level of flour moth-specific IgE was measured in the patient's serum (1.9 PRU/ml, RAST class 2). immunoblotting with the patient's serum revealed at least seven heavy IgE-binding bands with molecular masses of 22, 35, 43, 53, 65, 77, and >86 kDa in the extract of flour moth. Allergen cross-reactivity with mites was demonstrated in inhibition studies. Immediate-type allergy to flour moth was confirmed by nasal challenge. Increased daily variability of PEF values was observed during workplace exposure. CONCLUSION: A baker's occupational respiratory allergy to flour moth was confirmed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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6/48. Episodic stridor with latex nipple use in a 2-month-old infant.

    Latex allergy in the pediatric population is most commonly identified in patients who have undergone multiple operations for neural tube defects or exstrophic genitourinary anomalies. However, there are a significant number of children who, without the usual risk factors, clinically and/or serologically appear to be latex allergic. There is sporadic information in the medical literature regarding reactions to latex allergens in household items, especially in patients younger than 1 year old. Several recent reports even support the existence of reactions to latex pacifiers. We report a case of an atopic 2-month-old infant who experienced the previously unreported reaction of repeated stridor on exposure to a latex nipple while feeding. It is important that clinicians recognize stridor as a potential reaction to latex in infants.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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7/48. Use of immunotherapy in the management of presumed anaphylaxis to the deer fly.

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylactic reactions to biting insects are generally thought to be rare events. Diagnostic and therapeutic standards for these events are not well documented in the literature. OBJECTIVE: We describe a case report of a patient with multiple suspected immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated anaphylactic reactions to biting insects, specifically deer flies (Chrysops sp.), as well as a successful response to immunotherapy. methods: Prick and intradermal testing with deer fly whole-body extract and measurement of specific IgE were performed to help determine the extent of the patient's hypersensitivity. immunotherapy was subsequently administered with whole-body deer fly extract. RESULTS: skin testing was unable to differentiate between the patient and normal controls. in vitro testing was positive in the study patient but only at a low level. After initiating immunotherapy, the patient had repeated exposures to deer fly bites but failed to develop symptoms consistent with his previous anaphylactic episodes. Followup testing on the patient revealed no significant change in the level of skin reactivity or specific IgE. CONCLUSIONS: anaphylaxis consistent with an IgE-mediated mechanism to Chrysops sp. is a real phenomenon and is amenable to immunotherapy for the prevention of life-threatening sequela after exposure. skin testing using whole-body extract appears to be unreliable. in vitro testing was better able to discern a true sensitivity, although the difference between patient and controls was small.
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ranking = 2
keywords = exposure
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8/48. Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to artichoke (cynara scolymus).

    BACKGROUND: The artichoke is a perennial horticultural plant that belongs to the Compositae family. OBJECTIVE: To present case studies of 2 vegetable warehouse workers who developed occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma by sensitization to artichoke. methods: skin prick tests with common inhalants and foods were performed. Specific IgE to artichoke, parietaria judaica pollen, and olea europaea pollen extracts was measured by a specific IgE enzyme immunosorbent assay kit. Molecular mass of the allergens was studied by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) immunoblotting technique. patients underwent a nasal challenge test, and one patient provided peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurements in her workplace. RESULTS: In both patients, results of skin prick tests to artichoke were positive. Levels of specific IgE for artichoke were 0.68 kU/L in patient 1 and 2.14 kU/L in patient 2. The protein composition of the artichoke extract, studied by SDS-PAGE, showed that most bands ranged from 30 to 14 kDa. The IgE-binding bands with the serum samples of patient 1 showed apparent molecular masses of 56, 48, 38, 31, 27, 25, 16, and 15 kDa; however, the serum samples of patient 2 showed IgE bands of 21 and 19 kDa. Western blotting of artichoke extract showed a complete inhibition of IgE-binding bands when serum samples were preincubated with P. judaica pollen extract. Nasal challenge with artichoke extract triggered a peak nasal inspiratory flow decrease of 81% and 85% in patient 1 and patient 2, respectively. Finally, patient 1 recorded a PEFR decrease of up to 36% after exposure to artichoke in her workplace. CONCLUSIONS: SDS-PAGE immunoblotting inhibition performed for the artichoke extract showed a total disappearance of the specific IgE binding bands when serum samples were previously incubated with P. judaica pollen extract, thus establishing the existence of a serologic cross-reactivity between artichoke and P. judaica pollen.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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9/48. latex hypersensitivity reactions despite prophylaxis.

    Latex rubber hypersensitivity represents a significant problem facing the medical, surgical, radiologic, and dental professions. As a tertiary care center, the Childrens Hospital of philadelphia has a large population of patients with spina bifida and complex genitourinary anomalies; a number of these children have latex rubber allergy, which may first present as intraoperative anaphylaxis. Although there is no substitute for complete antigen avoidance, all medical products containing latex rubber may not have suitable alternatives. Therefore, we have formulated a protocol to prevent perioperative reactions through the use of prophylactic medications and the limitation of latex exposure. This regimen includes steroids, antihistamines, and bronchodilators when indicated. In four children, prophylaxis failed perioperatively because of parenteral infusion of latex rubber proteins.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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10/48. Non-occupational allergy caused by the pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa).

    Contact with the pine processionary caterpillar induces dermatitis, usually located in exposed areas, and, less frequently, ocular lesions through a toxic-irritative mechanism. Recently, the existence of an immediate hypersensitivity mechanism has been demonstrated, mainly in occupationally exposed patients. OBJECTIVE: To present four patients who experienced allergic reactions (urticaria-angioedema and rhinitis-asthma) after non-occupational exposure to pine processionary caterpillar. patients AND methods: The four patients underwent allergy testing through skin prick tests (SPT), specific IgE detection and SDS-PAGE immunoblotting. One patient also underwent a specific bronchial challenge test with the pine processionary antigen. RESULTS: In all patients, both SPT with the caterpillar extract and specific IgE were positive. Western blotting showed several IgE-binding bands with molecular mass values ranging from 18 to 107 kDa. A shift in the electrophoretic mobility of some of the relevant allergens occurred under the presence of a reductive agent (beta -mercaptoethanol). The specific bronchial challenge test with pine processionary antigen performed in one of the patients also produced positive results. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show an immunologic IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity mechanism in these reactions. The processionary caterpillar's airborne urticating hairs or spicules should be considered, at least in some locations, not only as contact and occupational allergens, but also as seasonal aeroallergens.
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ranking = 146.49788140438
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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