Cases reported "Hypertension, Malignant"

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1/168. Expression of 90-kDa heat shock protein within regenerative tubular cells in a patient with acute oliguric renal failure due to malignant hypertension.

    A 29-year-old man developed acute oliguric renal failure with severe hypertension and microangiopathy. He was treated with hemodialysis and anti-hypertensive drugs, but oliguria was prolonged. A renal biopsy was performed on the 29th hospital day. Small arteries and arterioles were characterized by marked intimal thickening, and most of the glomeruli showed ischemic changes. Although there was extensive tubular loss and atrophy, regenerative changes were occasionally observed in some tubules, in which 90-kDa heat-shock protein was induced. He was diagnosed as having malignant nephrosclerosis, and was treated with a prostaglandin I2 analog, in addition to anti-hypertensive drugs. Thereafter, his renal function recovered gradually, and hemodialysis was discontinued on the 49th hospital day. Functional recovery lasts more than five years. We suggest that the expression of HSP90 in regenerative tubular cells is a useful histological indicator for predicting recovery from acute oliguric renal failure due to malignant hypertension. ( info)

2/168. posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome may not be reversible.

    The association of an acute reversible encephalopathy with transient occipital lobe abnormalities on imaging studies is well known. This condition has been called reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. The clinical presentation usually includes seizures, headache, altered mental status, and blindness, often associated with hypertension and immunosuppressants. The authors discuss a two-year-old male with down syndrome who presented 2 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with severe oculogyric crisis, without other complaints. The patient was being treated for hypertension and was receiving cyclosporine for prophylaxis of graft-vs-host disease. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed marked bilateral lucencies mainly involving the white matter of the occipital lobes, with a few foci of punctate hemorrhage. The condition improved when cyclosporine was discontinued, but an area of leukomalacia was identified on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. To the authors' knowledge, oculogyric crisis as a presentation of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy has not been previously described. Recognizing this association is important, because patients receiving cyclosporine are often receiving other medications that can potentially cause dystonic eye movements, possibly leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment, which can result in an irreversible neurologic deficit. ( info)

3/168. Haematospermia associated with malignant hypertension.

    Haematospermia is generally regarded as a benign, self limiting condition. Although no obvious cause is found in most cases, an uncommon but important predisposing factor is severe uncontrolled hypertension. We describe a case illustrating the need to routinely measure blood pressure in such instances. ( info)

4/168. Recurrent malignant hypertension: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Malignant hypertension (MHT) is a rare and life-threatening condition which is defined clinically as severe hypertension accompanied by bilateral retinal haemorrhages and/or hard exudates, with or without papilloedema. If untreated, the prognosis of MHT is poor. With MHT being a relatively rare condition, it would be unusual to see it on more than one occasion in the same patient. We describe in detail two cases from a disease register of 400 cases of MHT seen in one medical centre over 33 years. ( info)

5/168. Coccygeal fracture, constipation, convulsion, and confusion: a case report of malignant hypertension in a child.

    Malignant hypertension is an unusual but well described cause of seizures in pediatrics. It is a medical emergency that must be recognized and emergently treated to prevent morbidity and mortality. In contrast to adults, hypertension in children is usually secondary to an underlying disease process. We present a complex case of hypertensive encephalopathy with seizures as the initial presentation of a pelvic mass, describe the initial work-up and stabilization and present an overview of the literature. review of the medical literature described only one similar presentation (1). Interestingly, acute symptoms in this patient may have been precipitated by use of an over-the-counter medication. ( info)

6/168. Malignant hypertension with a rare complication of pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage.

    A 34-year-old Japanese male was admitted to Okayama University Hospital with severe hypertension, rapidly progressive renal failure, blurred vision, dyspnea and hemoptysis. Clinical diagnosis of malignant hypertension was given and antihypertensive therapy and hemodialysis were immediately started. Renal biopsy was performed on the sixth day in hospital to examine the underlying disease, such as microscopic form of polyarteritis, since the complaint of hemoptysis and pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage was noted by computed tomography of the lungs. Typical pathological changes of malignant hypertension, i.e. fibrinoid necrosis of the afferent arterioles and proliferative endoarteritis at the interlobular arteries were observed. There was no evidence of active necrotizing glomerulonephritis and crescent formation. Renal function was gradually recovered and pulmonary hemorrhage completely disappeared by treatment with antihypertensive agents. The authors report a case of malignant hypertension with a rare complication of pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage and speculate that it may be related to vascular injuries at the alveolar capillary level caused by malignant hypertension. ( info)

7/168. Malignant primary hypertension in pregnancy treated with lisinopril.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a patient treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with a good neonatal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old African-Caribbean patient who had chronic hypertension presented at 18 weeks' gestation with acute hypertension. She was being treated for chronic hypertension with lisinopril, but had self-discontinued treatment. Attempts to control her hypertension with labetolol, nifedipine, and methyldopa were ineffective. She was therefore offered termination of pregnancy so treatment with lisinopril could be restarted. The patient elected to continue with the pregnancy in spite of the fetal risks associated with the use of an ACE inhibitor. She was delivered of a girl at 26 weeks' gestation. The baby initially had renal failure and also developed acute necrotizing enterocolitis. The renal failure improved simultaneously with the latter complication, and it is postulated that there was enteric excretion of lisinopril. The baby was discharged home on day 102 with no further complications. DISCUSSION: ACE inhibitors are acceptable medications to use in the first trimester of pregnancy; however, fetal malformations and neonatal complications have been associated with their use later in pregnancy, and they have a perinatal mortality rate of 97/1000. lisinopril is excreted in urine and feces unchanged, and its half-life is prolonged in anuric neonates. peritoneal dialysis eliminates lisinopril; however, this neonate improved after treatment for necrotizing enterocolitis and simultaneous improvement in bowel function. CONCLUSIONS: ACE inhibitors should not be used in pregnancy beyond the end of the first trimester. In exceptional cases, they may be indicated for the control of severe hypertension when the patient is refractory to other medications. The patient should be fully counseled about the adverse effect profile and neonatal outcome. This case report documents a successful outcome for mother and baby in these circumstances. ( info)

8/168. Surgical treatment of Takayasu's arteritis: case report and literature review.

    Surgical intervention during the early stages of Takayasu's arteritis is rarely necessary. In the chronic stages of this disease, however, surgeons may be faced with difficult decisions regarding the timing of complex arterial reconstructions. These issues can be especially challenging in the pediatric population. We report the case of an 8-year-old girl with chronic Takayasu's arteritis complicated by malignant hypertension. Despite aggressive medical therapy, her blood pressure remained uncontrolled. Imaging studies demonstrated infrarenal aortic and right common iliac artery aneurysms with concomitant segmental stenosis of the right common iliac artery. Since her transplant kidney was based off the right external iliac artery, it was felt that this high-grade stenosis was responsible for her severe hypertension. Immediate surgical reconstruction was therefore recommended. Intraoperatively, the aneurysmal aorta and iliac arteries were found to be densely calcified. The transplant kidney was perfused during aortic clamping by placement of a suprarenal aorta to the right external iliac artery shunt. Endoaneurysmorrhaphy was then performed to reconstruct the aorta after extensive endarterectomy. In the early postoperative period, antihypertensive medications were decreased to two oral agents. She was discharged on the seventh postoperative day and placed on two agents. At a 1-year follow-up visit, she is on one antihypertensive medication. Her right leg complaints have resolved. Ultrasound surveillance revealed no evidence of recurrent aneurysmal or occlusive disease. A brief review of complications related to Takayasu's arteritis in the children and indications for surgical intervention completes this report. ( info)

9/168. Extraadrenal retroperitoneal paraganglioma causing malignant hypertension and permanent visual loss in an eleven-year-old girl.

    We report a secretory paraganglioma in an eleven-year-old Trinidadian girl of East Indian descent who presented with malignant hypertension, proteinuria and modest elevation of urinary vanillylmandelic acid levels. The extra-adrenal mass was surgically removed without complications. The patient has been normotensive without evidence of recurrence of disease but with persistent visual sequel two years later. This case reinforces the observation that extraadrenal retroperitoneal paragangliomas can be functionally very active and early computed tomography or other imaging procedure is necessary for rapid noninvasive evaluation, timely surgery and prevention of permanent morbidity. ( info)

10/168. nicardipine is a safe and effective agent in pediatric hypertensive emergencies.

    nicardipine is the first dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker capable of intravenous administration. Seven pediatric patients with hypertensive emergencies attributable to various pathological processes were treated with intravenous nicardipine, starting at 1 microg/kg/min. nicardipine appeared to be safe and effective in controlling hypertension in these patients. Two patients who received nicardipine through peripheral lines developed superficial thrombophlebitis. None of the five patients receiving nicardipine through a central line experienced phlebitis, and no other adverse effects were noted. ( info)
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