Cases reported "Hypertension, Pulmonary"

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1/33. Successful percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty using left ventricular pressure as a guide to cross the mitral valve--a case report.

    Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) provides an effective alternative to surgery in a selective group of patients with symptomatic mitral stenosis. The Inoue balloon technique involves transseptal catheterization followed by catheter manipulation to cross the mitral valve. The authors describe a case of successful percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty in a patient with severe mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension. Left ventricular systolic pressure was used as a guide to locate and to advance the balloon catheter across the mitral valve. This technique to cross the mitral valve has not been reported in the literature.
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2/33. Use of aerosolized inhaled epoprostenol in the treatment of portopulmonary hypertension.

    BACKGROUND: Portopulmonary hypertension is a known complication in the liver transplant candidate. Intravenous epoprostenol has been demonstrated to decrease pulmonary artery pressures and possibly remodel right ventricle geometry. methods: In this report, we document the efficacy of inhaled aerosolized epoprostenol in a patient with portopulmonary hypertension. The effect was of rapid onset and offset. RESULTS: After 10 min of delivery, mean pulmonary artery pressure decreased 26%; cardiac output increased by 22%; pulmonary vascular resistance decreased by 42%; and the transpulmonary gradient decreased by 29%. There were no untoward side effects. CONCLUSION: The inhaled route of delivery of epoprostenol is potential alternative for the acute therapy of portpulmonary hypertension.
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3/33. Aerosolized iloprost therapy could not replace long-term IV epoprostenol (prostacyclin) administration in severe pulmonary hypertension.

    OBJECTIVES: To switch patients with severe pulmonary hypertension and previous life-threatening catheter-related complications from long-term IV epoprostenol therapy to aerosolized iloprost therapy. DESIGN: Open, uncontrolled trial. SETTING: Medical ICU of a university hospital. patients: Two patients with primary pulmonary hypertension and one patient with pulmonary hypertension after surgical closure of atrial septal defect (mean pulmonary artery pressure > or =50 mm Hg). All were classified as new york Heart association class II under treatment with continuous IV epoprostenol for 4 years. INTERVENTIONS: Stepwise reduction of IV epoprostenol (1 ng/kg/min steps every 3 to 10 h) during repeated inhalations of aerosolized iloprost (150 to 300 microg/d with 6 to 18 inhalations/d). Continuous pulmonary and systemic arterial monitoring were performed. RESULTS: Aerosolized iloprost reduced pulmonary artery pressure by 49%, 49%, and 45%, respectively, and increased cardiac output by 70%, 75%, and 41% in the three patients. The effect lasted for 20 min and was similar at different doses of IV epoprostenol. Persistent treatment change to inhaled iloprost could not be achieved because all patients developed signs of right heart failure. After termination of iloprost inhalations, return to standard epoprostenol therapy led to clinical and hemodynamic restoration. CONCLUSIONS: Although aerosolized iloprost demonstrated short-term hemodynamic effects, it could not be utilized as alternative chronic vasodilator in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension.
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4/33. One-year continuous inhaled nitric oxide for primary pulmonary hypertension.

    We describe a case of long-term administration of nitric oxide (NO) in a 32-year-old man who was admitted with exertional dyspnea and anasarca. A diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension was made. An acute vasodilator trial with inhaled NO showed a 5% reduction of the mean pulmonary artery pressure. Long-term NO inhalation therapy was initiated. Twenty days later, the dyspnea improved, the anasarca resolved, and the PaO(2) level increased. After 12 months of NO therapy, the patient remained stable and no signs of toxicity or tachyphylaxis were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 1 year of continuously inhaled NO in an adult patient with primary pulmonary hypertension. These findings suggest that prolonged NO therapy might be an effective alternative, at a lower cost, to the continuous IV infusion of epoprostenol.
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5/33. Long term inhalation of iloprost in a child with primary pulmonary hypertension: an alternative to continuous infusion.

    Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare disease in childhood associated with a poor prognosis. However, during the past 10 years, pulmonary vasodilator treatment has somewhat improved its prognosis. Long term continuous infusion of prostacyclin (epoprostenol) has been shown to improve physical capacity and to reduce mortality in primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. It has been reported in adults that daily repetitive inhalation of iloprost, a prostacyclin analogue, seems also suitable for long term therapy of pulmonary hypertension. Repetitive inhalation of iloprost was administered to a 5 year old boy with severe primary pulmonary hypertension. He showed continuous clinical improvement without any side effects over the three years of treatment. This treatment may offer an alternative to continuous intravenous prostacyclin infusion and obviates the need for a permanent central venous catheter.
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6/33. Concurrent transcatheter closure of an apical muscular ventricular septal defect and a patent ductus arteriosus in a child with severe hyperkinetic pulmonary hypertension.

    Definitive treatment of congenital apical muscular ventricular septal defect (VSD) with large left-to-right shunt, severe pulmonary hypertension, and major associated lesions such as patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has so far been possible only by surgery that has significant attendant morbidity and mortality [2]. Transcatheter device closure of both shunt lesions, if feasible, is a potentially simpler and safer alternative to surgery.
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7/33. Pulmonary balloon angioplasty of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) in surgically inaccessible cases.

    The clinical course of patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) depends on the distribution pattern of the thromboembolic material. In patients with thromboembolic findings in the central pulmonary segments pulmonary thrombendarterectomy (PTE) has excellent results and acceptable operative risk. This paper presents two surgically inaccessible cases that were successfully treated with balloon pulmonary angioplasty. Balloon angioplasty improved parenchymal perfusion, increased cardiac index (Delta CI 19.2 % [Case 1], and 15.4 % [2]), reduced pulmonary vascular resistance during follow-up (Delta PVRI -25.0 % [1] and -15.9 % [2]), and is discussed as an alternative treatment option for cases not suited for surgery.
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8/33. Low-dose vasopressin infusion can be an alternative in treating patients with refractory septic shock combined with chronic pulmonary hypertension--a case report.

    Septic shock is still the major cause of death in surgical intensive care unit. Fluid support, inotropic agents, and broad spectrum antibiotics are still the mainstay of traditional therapy. Here, we present a case of septic shock arising from gangrenous ischemic bowel, complicated by chronic pulmonary hypertension, which was refractory to catecholamine vasoprerssors. We successfully stabilized the hemodynamics and reduce the pulmonary hypertension with low-dose vasopressin infusion.
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9/33. True aneurysm of the main pulmonary artery: surgical correction.

    A 23-year-old man who underwent surgical correction of a true pulmonary artery aneurysm is presented. Pathological features and the different surgical alternatives for treatment of this lesion are discussed.
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10/33. Artifact in the bispectral index in a patient with severe ischemic brain injury.

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used to predict neurological outcome in patients with anoxic-ischemic brain injury. The bispectral index (BIS) may be a useful alternative. A persistently low BIS associated with burst-suppression of the raw EEG in the setting of minimal hypnotic drug administration may indicate severe cerebral ischemia. We report a case where a patient with presumed ischemic brain injury and an extremely low BIS had an unexplained increase in BIS that could be attributed to electrocardiogram artifact. Care should be taken when interpreting BIS in the setting of anoxic-ischemic brain injury or brain death. IMPLICATIONS: The bispectral index (BIS) can be prone to artifact. In this report we found that electrocardiogram artifact led to an apparent normal BIS in a patient with complete burst-suppression associated with severe brain injury.
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